The ECHR places an important emphasis on individual rights whilst trying to strike a balance between individual and collective rights.

## Activity 1 Drafting a charter of rights

0 hours 15 minutes
Author(s): The Open University

Here is a mixed bag of exercises, in case you feel that you need more practice. Do the exercises which you feel will help you.

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Many mathematical problems include units of measurement. The measurement may be of length, weight, time, temperature or currency. The UK uses both metric and imperial units.

The table below gives the units of length that are in everyday use in the UK, but you may know some others.

MetricAuthor(s): The Open University

1 Without using your calculator solve the following calculations.

• (a) 3 + 5 Ã— 2 = ?

• (b) 12 âˆ’ 6 + 6 = ?

• (c) 6 + (5 + 4) Ã— 3 = ?

• (
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3.2 Have I used the correct order for my calculation?

When calculating an answer it is important that you give careful consideration to the order of operations used in the calculation. If you are using a mixture of operations remember that certain operations take priority in a calculation. Consider the following, apparently, simple sum.

Â Â Â 1 + 2 Ã— 3 = ?

Did you give 7 as your response, or 9?

The correct answer is 7 but can you explain why?

If you have a calculator handy, check that it
Author(s): The Open University

1.5.1 Try some yourself

1 Round 2098Â 765

• (a) to 1 s.f.

• (b) to 2 s.f.

• (c) to 3 s.f.

• (d) to 4 s.f.

## AnAuthor(s): The Open UniversityLicense informationRelated contentExcept for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

1 Round the numbers below:

• (a) to the nearest 10.

• (b) to the nearest 100.

• (c) to the nearest 1000.

Â Â 325 089,Â Â 45 982,Â Â 11 985
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By the end of this unit you should be able to:

• round a given whole number to the nearest 10, 100, 1000 and so on;

• round a decimal number to a given number of decimal places or significant figures;

• use rounded numbers to find rough estimates for calculations;

• use a calculator for decimal calculations involving +, âˆ’, Ã— and Ã·, giving your answer to a specified accuracy (e.g. decimal places or significant figures) and checking your an
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For many calculations you use a calculator. The main aim of this unit is to help you to do this in a sensible and fruitful way. Using a calculation to solve a problem involves four main stages:

• Stage 1: working out what calculation you want to do;

• Stage 2: working out roughly what size of answer to expect from your calculation;

• Stage 3: carrying out the calculation;

• Stage 4: interpreting the answer â€“ Doe
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A common criticism of many children's and some adults' drawings is that certain parts are not â€˜in proportionâ€™. That means that they are either too big or too small in relation to the rest of the masterpiece. â€˜In proportionâ€™ means being in the same ratio. Imagine that you have drawn a picture of the front of your house, reducing it in scale to one twentieth of its size.

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Aims The main aim of this section is to look at some different ways of measuring price increases.

In this section you will be looking at measuring price changes using price indices. In order to do this you will need to understand the concept of a price ratio. Price ratios are another way of looking at price increases or decreases, related to the proportional and percentage increases and decreases you have seen before.

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In some situations, various values in the batch get repeated (there may be a limited number of different values that can occur, for example). It can be simpler to group the data and record the number of times with which each different value occurs. The number is called the frequency. The following example explores this possibility and comes up with an equivalent formula for calculating the mean of the batch.

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Aims The main aim of this section is to discuss several ways of finding averages and to introduce you to the statistical facilities of your calculator.

A single number which is typical or representative of a collection (or batch - statistical term for a set of collected data.) of numbers is commonly referred to as an average. There are several different ways of defining such a number. Two are discussed briefly in Author(s): The Open University

The investigation so far illustrates just how difficult it can be to make a fair comparison of prices. In this subsection, the central question is still â€˜Are people getting better off?â€™ However, in order to make the task more straightforward, just look at the period from 1990 to 2004.

• How might you use the â€˜price of breadâ€™ measure as a way of investigating whether or not people got better off over this period?

In particular, t
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Cade: There shall be in England seven halfpenny loaves sold for a penny; the three-hooped pot shall have ten hoops; and I will make it felony to drink small beer.

(William Shakespeare, Henry VI, Part 2, written in 1594)

In this quotation, the character Cade anticipates the good times that are sure to follow after the revolution. The notion of the â€˜halfpenny loafâ€™ is interesting, as is t
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Aims The main aim of this section is to introduce some ideas about making valid comparisons and to focus on ways of extracting information from tables and graphs.

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Are we getting better off? Politicians and journalists often make sweeping claims about whether or not â€˜weâ€™ are getting better off.

• Who is this â€˜weâ€™ of whom they speak?

• On what do they base these claims?

• What does being better off mean to you?

• How would you go about assessing how well-off you are?

In attempting to resolve some of these questions, a number of important mathemat
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Pretend that you are the marker of another solution to the same problem. How would you mark Solution B?

## Example 16 Billions

You may think that you know what the word billion means but do you really have a feel for its size?

Author(s): The Open University

First write out a full solution to the following problem.

## Example 16: Billions

You may think that you know what the word billion means but do you really have a feel for its size?

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The following table summarises some of the types of instructions you will encounter.

 Write down â€¦ Determine â€¦ Show â€¦ What isâ€¦ Find â€¦ Prove â€¦ Calculate â€¦ A simple answer will do but generally gAuthor(s): The Open UniversityLicense informationRelated contentExcept for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Copyright 2009 University of Nottingham