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Business organisations and their environments: Culture
We know that culture guides the way people behave in society as a whole. But culture also plays a key role in organisations, which have their own unique set of values, beliefs and ways of doing business. This free course, Business organisations and their environments: Culture, explores the concepts of national and organisational culture and the factors that influence both.Author(s): Creator not set

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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

Organisations and management accounting
This free course, Organisations and management accounting, examines the nature of organisations, specifically their objectives and structure. Organisational objectives and structure determine management functions and responsibilities within the organisation. First published on Wed, 05 Jun 2019 as Author(s): Creator not set

4.15.1 Ontologies

We noted earlier that, in philosophy, an ontology refers fundamentally to ‘being’, or ‘what can be’. In the field of artificial intelligence the term ‘ontology’ has been appropriated to mean a ‘reusable terminological scheme’ or, if you prefer, a ‘conceptualisation’: a scheme for providing a rigorous description of the concepts, attributes and interrelationships deemed relevant to describe a particular aspect of the world. Its precision means that it can serve as an agreed
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2.1 Representation, interpretation and communities of practice

Let us start with a thought experiment.

Activity 2.1

  • Where is the music?

  • The music is in the musical notation.

  • No, the music is in the
    Author(s): The Open University

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4.2 Bureaucracy

Bureaucracy as a concept has had an interesting career: it begins in France in the eighteenth century. By the nineteenth century, the German state constructed by its first Chancellor, Bismarck, was a model bureaucracy in both its armed forces and civil administration. Weber (1978) realised that the creation of the modern state of Germany had only been possible because of the development of a disciplined state bureaucracy and a bureaucratised standing army – innovations pioneered in Prussia
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2.4 Glocalisation

‘Glocalisation’ combines the words ‘globalisation’ and ‘localisation’ to emphasise the idea that a global product or service is more likely to succeed if it is adapted to the specific requirements of local practices and cultural expectations. The term started to appear in academic circles in the late 1980s, when Japanese economists used it in articles published by the Harvard Business Review. For the sociologist Roland Robertson, who is often credited with popularising the
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2.3 Marketing department marketing

It is common practice for an entire organisation's marketing activities, such as advertising, sales and market research, to be grouped together in a marketing department. The department's function is to create marketing plan activities that are designed to increase the customer's understanding of existing products and services. The marketing director manages all specialisms. Marketing is seen as ‘what the marketing department does’.


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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • understand why and how innovation is important

  • recognise the benefits which innovation can confer on an innovating organisation.


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7 FAQs

These questions represent general issues about ‘getting started’, but they have a particular focus on special requirements, whether it’s about volunteering for particular age groups or virtual volunteering for those with a lack of regular time to commit, or problems with mobility.

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1.2 Standing out from the crowd

‘Volunteering looks great on your CV….It’s the perfect way to get a taste of working life and gain skills and experience’

CSV website

Employers are impressed by voluntary work, but what are the hard facts about this?

Research carrie
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1.5.1 A true community of Europeans?

Ray Hudson (Hudson and Williams, 1999) has maintained that the formation of a true community of Europeans is important and desirable, and that it will not follow automatically from the converging of linguistic and cultural practices. It is difficult to envisage the disappearance of national differences, though they may be less pronounced in the future. What seems to be clear for Hudson is that only by looking at the future can a European identity be created; the past, unless highly sanitised,
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1.3.1 Europe and the EU

Is there a Europe beyond the EU? This is a question that becomes more and more difficult to answer. It is quite common for example to hear of such or such a country wishing to ‘join Europe’, when what is meant is that they wish to apply to join the EU.

The criteria for joining the EU were laid down in the summit of Copenhagen, 21 and 22 June 1993. Candidates must have reached an institutional stability that guarantees democracy, legality, human rights, and the respect and protection
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1.10 Voice and the speaking subject

Discursive practices, as we have seen, order the shape of written and spoken discourse; they order the features which appear and the selection of words and phrases. But these properties are only a small subset of those which govern meaning-making. In this and in the next section we will be more concerned with patterns in the content of discourse and the psychological and sociological implications of those patterns. This will help elaborate further on the notion that language is constru
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • identify some key themes in discourse analysis

  • appreciate the consequences of discourse research for some key topics in social science, such as indentity, interaction and subjectivity

  • be familiar with some discourse analytical techniques and their consequences for analysing social interactions.


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6.3 Shopping with ‘vouchers’

Activity 5

The advice given to young asylum seekers, reproduced here as Extract 4, describes how the system of vouchers (see Author(s): The Open University

5.1 Post-structuralist perspectives: the production of social meaning

With the onset of the Second World War, because they came from Germany, Wolja and Lotte became ‘enemy aliens’ overnight, an identification they resisted. By contrast, both Victor and Françoise were viewed as ‘asylum seekers’. In all cases, their status derived from their country of origin. The discussion of gender and sexuality in Section 4 rev
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4.4 Family meanings matter in family studies

Researchers and students of family studies need to pay attention to family meanings because it is not possible to stand outside of such meanings. Thus, it is important to be able to reflect upon the ways in which these meanings shape and impinge upon research, and, in the process, come to be reconstructed and reproduced. Such reflection is relevant whether we are considering the interpretations of people's lives undertaken within qualitative research or the categories of households and relati
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2.3 What's so difficult?

Morgan's discussion helps us to think about how we can develop research, policies and interventions around ‘family’ when the key term is so problematic. But we also need to explore further just what is so difficult about this endeavour. There are also some clues to this in Morgan's discussion, in which he points out that:

  • there is a close linkage between everyday and academic language of family

  • there is a whole variety of a
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1.1 Introducing ‘family meanings’

Wendy: What's important about being in a family?

Juliet: I've got mixed feelings in a way, cause I sometimes feel they are over-rated … You don't have to be suffocated in a two parents and a couple of kids situation. To me that is not the be all and end all.

Fred: … it's the natural flow of family life isn't it. You know that you get old
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3.6 Summary

  • The common-sense narratives of the crime problem in the UK can be broken down into a series of distinct claims that make assessing them easier.

  • Those claims can be tested against quantitative and qualitative evidence. Both types of evidence suggest that the narrative of change from a secure to an insecure society is at best partial, overestimating the tranquillity of the past, and the uncertainty and riskiness of the present.


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