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4.4 Groups

If we agree that the posing of individuals carried messages for the viewer it makes sense that the posing of family groups can similarly be made to convey suggestions about the family and its character.


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4.3 Characterisation and sexual stereotyping

The choice of pose was also intended to echo the limited positive characterization of the expression. Distinctions were inevitably drawn between poses regarded as suitable for males and those considered appropriate for females. Men were allowed greater variety of poses than women.

The pose of a lady should not have that boldness of action which you would give a man, but be modest and retiring, the arms describing g
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2.3 Photographs as artefacts

Bear in mind that photographs are artefacts. This means that they are more than just images. The photographer, the process and the packaging all add something to our understanding of the role of the photograph. So, for example, the mount can indicate its purpose (exhibition wall, domestic display, album and so on) and the significance attached to the article in its time. The physical properties of a mount, such as the quality of the card or style of printing, can distinguish top-of-the-range
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2.2 Photographs as primary sources

As a primary source of historical evidence the still photograph remains largely unexamined and unexplored. Many academic historians remain wedded to the written word and are often mistrustful or dismissive of the still image. Photographs continue to be used merely to prettify or to provide necessary breathing space in dense texts. In fact, the task of finding ‘illustrations’ is often only considered after a book is written. What could indicate more clearly that the photograph has n
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2.1.3 Amateur snapshots 1880s–

Image 7 Photographer/Painter: Anon. Subject: Audrey in pushchair, 1950s.
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2.1.1 Card mounted photographs 1860–c.1914

Figure 3
Image 3 Photographer/Painter: Anon.
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2.1 Styles of photograph

Let's briefly examine the various styles of photograph that are commonly found in family albums.

Figure 1
Image 1 Photographer/Painter: Anon. Subject: Unknown woman, 18
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1 How to avoid damage when handling photographs

Remember to treat your photographs with the consideration demanded by their age and fragility. Careless handling and storage will cause damage.

  • Handle photographs at the edges: the skin carries chemicals which cause deterioration (professional archivists wear cotton gloves).

  • Hold a photograph in both hands or support an unmounted print with a piece of cardboard to avoid unnecessary handling.

  • Never write on a photograp
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Introduction

Most of us today take photographs for our family albums. The lucky ones among us have also inherited family photographs from the past. These photographs provide another type of record that can offer insights into our family history. But what can they tell us? How can we elicit the information they hold? And how do we analyse or evaluate that information? The purpose of this unit is to suggest how to approach the interpretation of the photographic record.

Please keep referring to your ow
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Acknowledgements

This unit was written by Dr Steve Padley

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Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduc
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References

Amis, Martin (1989) London Fields, Penguin.
Austen, Jane (1818) Northanger Abbey, Penguin.
Austen, Jane (1813) Pride and Prejudice, Oxford World's Classics.
Baldick, Chris (1990) The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms, Oxford University Press.
Beckson, K
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2.4 Setting

We can define the ‘setting’ of a story as the geographical location or locations in which the events of the narrative takes place, as well as the time in which those events are set. Location can refer to wider geographical entities such as countries or cities as well as to smaller entities such as households or domestic interiors. Time can refer to a general historical period or to the chronological boundaries of the story's events.

Let's look again at the beginning of Salman Rushdi
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • have an understanding of the basic technical terms associated with plays;

  • be able to make the most out of a text of a play.


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2.3 Essential properties and central cases

What should we expect a finished answer to the ‘What is…?’ question to look like? It might be suggested that we should answer this question by identifying a set of features that are shared by all uncontroversial cases of emotion – for example, cases of anger or fear – and that are not shared by psychological occurrences of other kinds – for example, hunger or cowardice. Once we have identified these features, we will be able to refer to them to decide any controversial cases. An a
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2.3 Intermediaries

The emperor could not be in all places at once, and he employed subordinates and representatives in the provinces to act on his behalf.

Exercise 2

You should now read Goodman, pages 100–4 and 107–10, below. This will provide
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • practise identification of ‘indigenous’ identity and culture;

  • practise identification of ‘Roman’ identity and culture;

  • study the development of Romano-African culture.


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3 A comparison of attitudes

It is, indeed, instructive to compare the attitude of the people to imperialism in both these nation states during the final decade of the nineteenth century. Clearly, although there are surface similarities in the situation, the historical tradition of both countries respecting empire in fact determined to a great extent responses to imperialism. It was possible to speak of imperialism and the empire with pride in Britain. The United States denied its empire and its imperial ambitions. When
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1 Popular responses to the South African War, 1899–1902

It is convenient for purposes of comparison to examine popular responses to the Boer War or South African War of 1899 to 1902, which involved Britain in a war for the Transvaal, and to the Spanish-American War of 1898, which was fought, ostensibly at least, to free the Cuban people from Spanish oppression.

The South African War certainly involved the British working population. The war was fought by members of the working and lower-middle classes, many of whom volunteered. And the war w
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should have:

  • an awareness of the problems related to evidence for supporting claims on ‘ordinary’ people’s attitudes;

  • an awareness of popular responses to the South African War (1899-1902);

  • an understanding of attitudes to imperialism held by Americans.


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2.6.1 The phenomenological perspective

The term ‘phenomenology’ is a good example of polysemy, as it has different meanings according to the academic context in which it is found. There are scientific phenomenology and philosophical phenomenology, for example, and the sociologists Ken Thompson and Kath Woodward describe phenomenology as, ‘The development in sociology of a philosophical approach which focuses on people’s consciousness of their experiences and how they interpret the world; the meaning it has for them’ (Tho
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