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4.3.1 Confidentiality, integrity and availability

To preserve the value of an information asset, an organisation needs to sustain simultaneously its scarcity and its shareability within their respective regions. This is the critical high-level information security goal for any information asset; it is the entire rationale of an information security management system.

To maintain the security of an information asset, an organisation must:

  • either make the information asset unavailable in i
    Author(s): The Open University

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Genealogical resources

This page has links to a number of useful resources on genealogy and family history that may of help to you if you wish to research your family tree. Some of these resources are free to use; others are subscription services, although many of these offer free access to their indexes while charging for access to records. Most of the links given here have a UK bias; many of the larger genealogical sites are international but in practice dominated by the huge interest in the USA.

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1.1 Getting an overview

This section starts with an article from a technical journal – the sort that is read by academics and professionals working in a related technical field. It sets the scene for some of the technologies and issues that you will be encountering later in this unit.

We're not going to ask you to read the entire article, but we would like you to get an idea of the article's contents, the kind of points the author is making, and the range of issues that it throws up. With this aim in mind, w
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions). This content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

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2 2 Conclusion

The versatile tiny transistor is now at the heart of the electronics industry. In the video clips you have seen the history of the incredible shrinking chip, its Scottish connections, and an explanation of the physics that make chips work as well as a reconstruction of making a transistor using the crude techniques of yesteryear.


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7.4 Using flowcharts to describe a task (contd)

Now consider what happens when you are weighing, for example, flour on a set of scales. You slowly add more flour to the scalepan until you reach the desired weight. As you do this the display constantly changes, showing the weight increasing as you add more flour. To do this, the scales’ computer must repeatedly examine the input and update the display each time it does so. The flowcharts in figures Author(s): The Open University

7.1 Introduction

Earlier on I indicated that in order for a processor to perform a defined function it needs to be supplied with a list of instructions called a program. In this section I shall explore this idea a little further.

Software can be split into two categories, application software and operating systems. Application software is the name given to programs which enable a computer to perform specific tasks. The program that processes the image in the digital camera is one example; a word
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6 A look to the future

So what will computers do for you next? Perhaps they will be the key to solving transport problems. Driverless cars, controlled by computers, are under development. If these ever come to fruition perhaps they could help to reduce the number of road traffic accidents by automatically reducing their speed when they come too close to another car. Or perhaps journeys could be made faster and less frustrating because cars will use communicating computers to analyse traffic density and move along t
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5.2 Electronic kitchen scales

A set of electronic kitchen scales is shown in Figure 7. Their basic operation is relatively simple. When they are switched on and, for example, a 500-gram object is placed in the scalepan, the display shows the digits 500 and the letter g.

2.1.1 What's ‘Buy It Now’?

The Buy it Now button from eBay. It reads ‘Buy it Now’ in a slanted font with ‘whiz lines’ suggesting speed; the word Now is highlighted in red.

Acknowledgements

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Figures

Figure 6 NanoElectronics Japan

Figure 30 The Cottingley Fairies © Science and Society Picture Library

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6.4 Pictures

It used to be thought that a photograph could provide proof of an event – someone could be caught red-handed by a photograph, as proof of their guilt. ‘The camera never lies’, it was said. If you have a digital camera and have been ‘touching up’ photographs on your home computer you will know that this is far from true now. It is easy to lie with a digital photograph.

The idea that the camera never lies has always been a myth, however. As far back as 1917 the photographs of th
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6.2 Authority and the variety of information sources

Technology has massively increased the number and variety of news sources that we have access to. We still have printed books, magazines and newspapers, while digital techniques have increased the number of broadcast radio and TV channels that we can get. On the Web we have access to online versions of many of these. This allows us access to media that previously would have been inaccessible.

With traditional news sources such as these, we have some understanding of the authority that t
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3.2 ICT processes in newsgathering

The generic diagram of a communication system, as discussed previously, is shown in Figure 3. If we think of newsgathering as communication from the reporter in the field (User 1) to news editors in the studio (User 2), then we can relate some of the processes described by Higgins to the pro
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4.2.5 Emotions

Emotions can be easily misunderstood when you can't see faces or body language. People may not realise you are joking; irony and satire are easily missed. Smileys or emoticons such as :-) and :-( can be used to express your feelings (look at these sideways). Other possibilities are punctuation (?! #@*!), or , , or even using mock HTML tags such as smileys are stupid.

Remember that many discussion systems only support plain text so you can't rel
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1.5 How to take notes

So what should you do when taking notes? Again you will develop your own technique, but the method I use is as follows. I read the material through once very quickly, from start to finish. I then sift through the material, writing the words or phrases I think are important. I usually do this on a word processor but you can just as easily use pen and paper. Avoid simply copying and pasting large chunks of material. It is the process of actively reading the material and putting it in your own w
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1.1 Why take notes?

Information and Communication Technologies are developing at a rapid pace. There always seems to be something new happening. In this unit you'll be introduced to the underlying trends, ideas and principles as well as the applications of these technologies. However if you want to keep up with developments, it is important that you can find the very latest technology news items and that you can understand and interpret what they have to say.

In this unit you'll be reading an article, whic
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6.5 Classes

In the hotel system, each room is different and may have a different occupant. However all rooms are the same in that each has a room name and a rate, for example, and each may have an occupant. If something did not have a room name and a rate, it would not count as a hotel room. Thus we generally talk about objects in terms of general classifications. Instead of repeatedly saying that the objects representing rooms 201 and 302 have names, can be ensuite or not and have a rate, we define the
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6.3 Networks of objects

No serious program consists of a single object. Instead there will be a network of objects, which collaborate to achieve the functionality of the whole system. Figure 4 shows a network of objects representing a hotel, some guests and some rooms. This sort of diagram is called an object diagram or a snaps
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2.2 From waterfall to iterative development

Historically, the first widely adopted software development process was the waterfall development process (or simply, waterfall).

The waterfall process relies on the definition of sequential phases, as shown in Figure 1. Each phase starts only after the previous one has finished; all the analysis i
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