The European Parliament fulfils three main functions:

• it shares the power to legislate

• it exercises democratic supervision over all EC institutions

• it shares authority over the EC budget.

The legislative and supervisory roles are based on the European Parliament's democratic legitimacy. Its members are directly elected every five years by the citizens of the EU member states.

Author(s): The Open University

In this course we look at some different systems of numbers, and the rules for combining numbers in these systems. For each system we consider the question of which elements have additive and/or multiplicative inverses in the system. We look at solving certain equations in the system, such as linear, quadratic and other polynomial equations.

In Section 1 we start by revising the notation used for the rational numbers and the real numbers, and we list their arithmetical pro
Author(s): The Open University

Negative numbers occur in financial matters, in temperature or height measurements and many other practical situations.

Example 26

• (a) If the value of a painting increases by Â£20 a year and it is worth Â£200 today, how much will it be wort
Author(s): The Open University

Activity 55

Author(s): The Open University

Before considering division of fractions, it is helpful to think about division of whole numbers.

6 Ã· 2 asks for the number of twos in 6: 6 Ã· 2 = 3, since three twos are six (3 Ã— 2 = 6).

In a similar way, 6 Ã· Author(s): The Open University

Activity 30

Carry out the following calculations, without your calculator.

• (a) 3 Ã— (60 + 70).

• (b) (3 Ã— 60) + 70.

• (c) (70 âˆ’ 60) Ã· 5.

• Author(s): The Open University

There are two very famous formulas for circles:

circumference of a circleÂ =Â Author(s): The Open University

You may like to add the area formulas in this section to your notes for future reference.

The simplest areas to find are those of rectangles. The area of a rectangle is its length multiplied by its breadth. Sometimes the dimensions of a rectangle are referred to as the base and the height, instead of the length and the breadth. The area is then expressed as the base multiplied by the height.

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Author(s): The Open University

A fundamental concept in mathematics is that of a function.

Consider, for example, the function f defined by

This is an example of a real function, because it associates with a given real number
Author(s): The Open University

School mathematics curricula often focus on lists of content objectives in areas like number, arithmetic, statistics, measurement, geometry, trigonometry, and algebra. A typical list of content objectives might contain over one hundred objectives to be introduced or revisited and learned each year. These can be seen as hierarchical in nature but many textbooks do not attempt to organise the objectives in ways that enable the bigger underpinning ideas to become apparent to the pupils. In addit
Author(s): The Open University

The environmental impact of teaching and learning
This free course, The environmental impact of teaching and learning, discusses the impact on the environment of carbon based teaching and learning in Higher Education Institutions. It introduces a suite of innovative tools and resources which have been designed to help assess and identify ways to reduce these impacts. First published
Author(s): Creator not set

Migration
Migration is a free course looking at the migrations of animals, with special reference to birds, and also introducing the themes of movement, selection and homeostasis. First published on Thu, 07 Sep 2017 as Migration. To find out more visit The Open University's Author(s): Creator not set

The frozen planet
This free course is a general introduction to the frozen planet, including the temperature in the polar regions; the energy from the Sun and the seasons; reading and understanding graphs and maps; and how the Arctic and Antarctic regions are defined. First published on Thu, 23 May 2019 as Author(s): Creator not set

Changing cities
Urban processes are increasingly held to be responsible for causing a variety of problems environmental destruction, social injustice, global financial instability. They are also identified as harbouring the potential to meet these challenges through urban experiments in sustainable living, creative culture and alternative economies. This free course, Changing cities, explores how contemporary processes of urbanisation challenge how we think about political agency, providing a framework for the
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The IPCC comparison between modelled and observed temperatures since the year 1860 is shown in the three charts below

Climate change is a natural process of warming and cooling that has occurred all through the Earth's history. Throughout geological time there have been â€˜hot-houseâ€™ periods and ice ages. In order to understand the current situation, it is necessary to have some sense of context and perspective, from historical and geological time-scales. The document below shows a chart showing a generalised temperature history of the Earth.

Click on the link below to see the chart

Author(s): The Open University

We are also guilty of importing exotic species, some of which, like the rhododendron (imported from Asia to Europe), have run riot in the absence of natural predators or primary consumers, and so have tended to out-compete native plants. Sometimes introductions have been accidental; rats and many disease-causing organisms have spread around the world via relatively modern transportation such as sailing ships. However, deliberate introductions, such as the rhododendron, have been made with wor
Author(s): The Open University

The lack of expertise in the developing countries shows up at a subsequent stage as well. One of the undoubted plus points of the WTO, compared with its predecessor the GATT, is its streamlined mechanism for settling disputes between members â€“ on the whole quite impartially. But although many of the larger developing countries have won cases against the most powerful members like the EU and USA, the smaller ones are hamstrung by their inability to field lawyers specialised in international
Author(s): The Open University

The Ministerial Declaration adopted by WTO members at Doha on 14 November 2001 fails to address the most pressing needs either of the poorest countries or of the world's most vulnerable communities. This means that the people who most need a share in global prosperity are still those least likely to obtain it.

(A joint statement by Actionaid, CAFOD, Christian Aid, Oxfam, Save the Children and five other charities a
Author(s): The Open University