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3.4 Competition

In plants it is particularly obvious that many more potential offspring (seeds) are produced than can survive. To a very large extent it is a matter of chance as to which are the survivors. Some are eaten, others overlooked or stored away and forgotten. Those that survive to germinate might be on unsuitable soil, too dry or too wet, so that they shrivel or rot. The successful seedling could be in poor soil, deficient in minerals, or there may be many other plants that are already established
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • describe the characteristics of light emitted by stars, and hence the information of cosmological interest that can be deduced from it;

  • distinguish between true and false statements relevant to the distribution and motion of stars within galaxies, and of galaxies within clusters and superclusters;

  • outline the methods used for estimating the distances to stars and to galaxies;

  • explain and
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7 Unit summary

Section 2

The law of conservation of charge applies locally at each point and time, so any variation of the total charge within a closed surface must be due to charges that flow across the surface of the region. This principle leads to the equation of continuity:

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6 Appendix: a note on displacement current density

This appendix is optional reading. It is included for the sake of comparison with other texts.

The Ampère–Maxwell law,

is sometimes expressed in the form


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3.6.1 Radioactivity and bugs!

Many natural processes involve repeated doublings or halving at regular intervals. You may have come across this already in your work, in the context of bacterial growth or radioactivity. In this section, we are going to look in more detail at bacterial growth and radioactivity and we will be using graphs to examine how the numbers of bacteria or numbers of radioactive atoms change over time.


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2.6 The surface

David A. Rothery Teach Yourself Planets, Chapter 6, pp. 66–75, Hodder Education, 2000, 2003.

Copyright © David Rothery

Look at the Moon even with the unaided eye, and you will see that it has dark patches on a paler background (Figure 2). This simple observation picks out the two distinct types of crust on the Moon. The paler areas are the lunar highlands, and the darker areas are the lunar ‘seas’ or maria (singular: mare). Both the highla
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2.4 The atmosphere and polar ice

David A. Rothery Teach Yourself Planets, Chapter 6, pp. 66–75, Hodder Education, 2000, 2003.

Copyright © David Rothery

The Moon's atmosphere is almost as insubstantial as Mercury's, and probably has much the same origin. The Clementine mission returned our first clear views of the lunar poles, showing sites in particular near the south pole that are permanently in shadow, and which could therefore be places where ice might accumulate (Figure 1). Clementine'
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2.3 Missions to the Moon

David A. Rothery Teach Yourself Planets, Chapter 6, pp. 66–75, Hodder Education, 2000, 2003.

Copyright © David Rothery

The Moon was the first extraterrestrial target for space missions. Probes have been directed towards it since almost the very dawn of the space age (see below), and it was the main focus of the 1960s–1970s ‘space race’ between the USA and the then Soviet Union. In the end, only NASA attempted to put people on the Moon, and the six suc
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2.1 The Moon

David A. Rothery Teach Yourself Planets, Chapter 6, pp. 66–75, Hodder Education, 2000, 2003.

Copyright © David Rothery

In this chapter you will learn:

  • about the nearest planetary body to the Earth

  • about the long record of impact cratering on its surface, and about the ancient eruptions that flooded many low-lying areas.

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1 Observing the Moon

Activity 1

0 hours 30 minutes

Try to make out features on the surface of the Moon, even if you have no optical aid available. If you have the use of a pair of binoculars you will probably
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you will be able to:

  • retrieve, evaluate and interpret data and information about the Moon, so that (for example) using a close-up picture of the Moon's surface you could identify the types of feature visible and recognise the processes responsible for creating them;

  • interpret simple tables;

  • express, manipulate and compare very small numbers.


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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

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9 Unit summary

You have learned about the following concepts in this unit:

  • Each type of atom contains a characteristic number of protons in a central nucleus and an equal number of electrons in layers surrounding the nucleus.

  • Elements are substances that consist of only one type of atom. Compounds contain two or more elements combined together. There are two kinds of bond between atoms: covalent and ionic.

  • Molecules are the smallest
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7 Ions and ionic bonding

This section returns to bonding – the way in which atoms are joined to each other. You have already met one type of bonding involving covalent bonds, which is found in molecules. However, this is not the only bonding found in compounds. In this section you will look at ionic bonding and the ionic compounds that contain such bonding. What is the main difference between the covalent compounds you met in Author(s): The Open University

5 Questions and answers

Question 1

Define each of the following: grammar, phonology, syntax, semantics, noun, verb, subject, object.

Answer

Grammar: The set of unconscious rules or pr
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • recognise definitions and applications of each of the terms printed in bold in the text;

  • understand and apply basic grammatical terminology;

  • describe briefly the different types of sounds used in speech in both acoustic and articulatory terms;

  • outline the key features of human language as compared to the vocalisations of other species;

  • describe the complex psychologi
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Introduction

This unit is an adapted extract from the course Biological psychology: exploring the brain (SD226)

This unit looks at how language is understood, which includes hearing and how sounds and words are interpreted by the brain. It takes an interdisciplinary approach and should be of wide general interest.


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9 Sedimentation at the end of the Caledonian Orgeny; Section 10 Legacy

The document attached below includes the ninth and tenth sections of Mountain building in Scotland, as well as the index. In these sections, you will find the following subsections:

  • 9.1 Introduction

  • 9.2 The Old Red Sandstone and the Devonian Period

  • 9.3 Distribution and stratigraphy of the Late Silurian to Devonian Basins

  • 9.4 Sedimentation and tectonics in the Midland Valley

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8 Multiple plate collisions and the end of the Iapetus Ocean

The document attached below includes the eighth section of Mountain building in Scotland. In this section, you will find the following subsections:

  • 8.1 Introduction

  • 8.2 Palaeocontinental reconstructions

    • 8.2.1 The global view

    • 8.2.2 A model for the closure of the Iapetus Ocean

    • 8.2.3 Summary of Section 8.2

  • 8.3 Tectonics of the Northe
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Learning outcomes

When you have studied this unit you should be able to:

  • describe the geological history of the Scottish Highlands;

  • give examples of igneous, metamorphic and structurally complex rocks.


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