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2.3 How things change with temperature

The temperature-dependent effects used in most thermometers have a fairly steady change over a good range of temperature (Figure 3a). By contrast, phase changes, of which melting and boiling are the common examples, happen at sharply critical temperatures (
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5.5 Other forms of diabetes

By far the three most common types of diabetes are Type 1, Type 2 and gestational. There are other forms of diabetes but we will not be covering them in any more detail. These are forms due to:

  • disease of the pancreas (pancreatitis)

  • an excess of hormones that increase blood glucose levels, e.g. excess growth hormone

  • drugs, for example, steroid therapy, which tend to oppose the action of insulin

  • abnorm
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2.3.4 The contract team

The contract team is brought in from outside in order to do the project work. Here, the responsibility to deliver the project rests very firmly with the project manager. The client will find such a team harder to control directly. On the other hand, it is the client who will judge the success of the project, so the project manager has to keep an eye constantly on the physical outcomes of the project. A variant of this is the so-called 'outsourced supply team', which simply means that the team
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2.3.2 The project (single) team

The project, or single, team consists of a group of people who come together as a distinct organisational unit in order to work on a project or projects. The team is often led by a project manager, though self-managing and self-organising arrangements are also found. Quite often, a team that has been successful on one project will stay together to work on subsequent projects. This is particularly common where an organisation engages repeatedly in projects of a broadly similar nature – for e
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2.3.1 The functional team

The hierarchical structure described above divides groups of people along largely functional lines: people working together carry out the same or similar functions. A functional team is a team in which work is carried out within such a functionally organised group. This can be project work. In organisations in which the functional divisions are relatively rigid, project work can be handed from one functional team to another in order to complete the work. For example, work on a new product can
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2.3 Types of teams

Different organisations or organisational settings lead to different types of team. The type of team affects how that team is managed, what the communication needs of the team are and, where appropriate, what aspects of the project the project manager needs to emphasise. A work group or team may be permanent, forming part of the organisation's structure, such as a top management team, or temporary, such as a task force assembled to see through a particular project. Members may work as a group
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2.2 What is a team?

Activity 1

Write your own definition of a 'team' (in 20 words or less).

You probably described a team as a group of some kind. However, a team is more than just a group. As noted above, wh
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1 course outline

The focus of this course is on relating to groups of other people rather than one-to-one relationships. Reading 1 develops some general concepts about 'groups' and 'teams', not just those at work. The later readings look at groups from particular perspectives or contexts, with the aim of discovering ideas about how to make them function more effectively.

This is, in fact, the main aim of this course: to help you understand how you might function more effectively in a group by improving
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • describe the main features of work groups and teams

  • discuss the main group processes that affect work group or team effectiveness

  • describe the main features of projects, project teams and project management

  • discuss some types of theories about effective leadership.


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5.12 Interests

There is quite a lot to be said about the play, but in this course I need to be selective. In the conversations that take place, one of the things that happens is that all sorts of interests unfold. There is a catalogue of benefits that could each potentially accrue to a long list of individuals and groups. We have the government that could gain benefits through ownership which would allow it to develop the device, understand threats, prevent development, protect the indigenous industry and r
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5.5 Rhetorical devices

I talked a bit about Ned's motivations, but I am not quite sure about what he is trying to do to be persuasive. He has this interest in aesthetics, but in giving a detailed explanation of a military technology he is working on, he, from time to time, uses an analogy. One analogy he uses is the ‘flocking of starlings’, which illustrates rather the principle of operation of the technology and suggests that it is a kind of an existence proof. It implies this technology might actually work. B
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4.2 Making the most of the Vue video case study

Now watch the Vue video clip, linked below.

The following self-assessment questions will help you make the most of your viewing of the video case study, and relate to the learning outcomes for Sections 2 and Author(s): The Open University

3.6 Interfaces in the supply network

Managing the internal interfaces is part of the story. Of increasing importance is the management of the processes that cross organisational boundaries between suppliers and purchasers, that is, the management of the supply network or chain. This network of suppliers, customers, government agencies and others that are necessary parts of the entire value system must be proactively managed. This includes designing the network appropriately.

A supply network is defined as:

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3.3 Business operations: a transformation process

The view that operations is the set of processes responsible for producing the organisation's intended outputs from an appropriate range of resource inputs can be represented very simply, as in Figure 2.

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7.4 The impact of technology on society

Engineering is apparently driven by the needs of society. The technology that results, in turn, drives other changes in our everyday lives. One of the basic needs identified in Section 2 was for shelter. There are many fine examples of long-surviving structures such as pyramids, aqueducts, bridges, walls, functional buildings, and so on. Remarkably these constructions were completed without the depth of analysis and understanding that is available today (though we don't necessarily know much
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7.2 The professional engineer

It has been suggested that there are four main criteria that identify a profession:

Custody of a clearly definable and valuable body of knowledge and understanding associated with a long period of training.

A strong unitary organization which ensures that the profession generally speaks with 'one voice'.

Clearly defined and rigorous entry standards, backed up by a requirement to register with the profession
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7.1 The engineer and society

Section 2 outlined some of the needs for engineering. Society relies on engineers to create solutions to the problems involved in meeting those needs.

This is a good time to pause and point out that inevitably, in return for all this fun and power, engineers have a responsibility to society. The people who employ our services, directly or indirectly, have to have an assurance that we are working within certain social, safety and ethical boundaries. Particularly given the increasing tren
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5.3 Back to the bicycle

Let's assume that our bicycle frame could still be constructed from ties and struts. If we want to select the material to minimise the weight of a frame for a particular frame strength, we need to devise a merit index as follows.

The mass of the tie-rods and struts needed for the frame is given by:

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