2.1 The meaning of formal rules

In this part, we will develop our understanding of rules further. So far we have concentrated on social rules. We looked at what is meant by this, at the way such rules develop, at the conflicts which may arise between groups operating under different social rule systems, and at what happens when such rules are broken. Here, we are going to explore rules which are more formal in nature. By this I mean rules which – instead of being the product of shared understanding and practice – are se
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3.4 The development of the European Convention on Human Rights

The aftermath of the Second World War was a time of great activity in the realms of human rights throughout the world, and the United Nations Charter itself, signed on 26 June 1945, included an obligation on states to respect fundamental human rights and freedoms. The development of an International Bill of Rights was significantly influenced by the commencement of the Cold War. However, that did not prevent the signing of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of
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2.2 Slavery reform

Some of the first international concerns over human rights, as they would now be recognised, were expressed about slavery at the end of the eighteenth century. Somerset's case in 1772 challenged the acceptance of slavery in the UK. This case is regarded as a turning point, as statutory abolition followed in the UK. Out of this changing social, political and legal attitude towards slavery grew a movement which sought to prohibit slavery internationally. It was not possible to secure the freedo
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References

Ansoff, H.I. (1965) Corporate Strategy, Penguin, Harmondsworth.
Galambos, L. and Sturchio, J. (1996) ‘The pharmaceutical industry in the twentieth century: a reappraisal of the sources of innovation’, History and Technology, Vol. 13, pp. 83–100.
Gambardella, A. (1995) Science and Innovation in the US Pharmaceutical Industry, Cambridge University Pres
Author(s): The Open University

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9.8 EL CANCIONERO

Actividad 9.8

It's time for another song. Read the following steps and do them in the order you prefer.

  1. Listen to this popular children's song.

    Escuche la canción.


    Author(s): The Open University

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Introduction

This unit explores questions about New Labour's approach to welfare reconstruction. This is linked to the unsettling and remaking of the old Welfare State by the New Right. The material is primarily an audio file, originally 27 minutes in length, and recorded in 1999.

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Social Policy: Welfare, Power and Diversity (D218) which is no longer taught by The Open University. If you want to study formally with us, you may wi
Author(s): The Open University

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1.7 Taxation

Another function of accounting is to provide the basis on which tax is measured. The link between taxation and financial reporting is stronger in some countries than others, and is typically much more pronounced in the accounting of owner-managed business than multinational groups. However, the tax issue can be a very significant shaper of accounting measurement. The relationship between tax and accounting is, like so many things, partly the result of an accident of history. In commercial cod
Author(s): The Open University

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