Introduction

In this unit we explore the way in which older age has been socially constructed, and focus particularly on how the identity of being an ‘old age pensioner’ (OAP) developed during the twentieth century.

This unit is an adapted extract from the course Personal lives and social policy (DD305)

Acknowledgements

Text

The material is contained in Book 1 Chapter 2 of Sexualities: Personal Lives and Social Policy (ed Jean Carabine), part of a series published by The Policy Press in association with The Open University. The other books in the series are:

Care: Personal Lives and Social Policy (ed. Janet Fink)

Work: Personal Lives and Social Policy (ed. Gerry Mooney)

Citizenship: Personal Lives and Social Policy
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Scissors People Art
Students cut out scissors shapes drawn on paper or card, and turn them into "Scissors people" by drawing (or sticking) features, clothing, etc., on them. Suitable for students with Moderate Special Needs - senior classes, aged 13+ (or Mild Special Needs junior/middle classes).
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4 Conclusion

In Section 3 we have looked at marriage, parenthood, sexuality, birth control and population policy in the period of fertility decline in Britain between 1860 and 1930. We can trace the two-way processes by which on the one hand, people drew on formations of social policy when shaping the place that fertility played in their lives, and on the other how social policy reflected and was changed by practices at a personal level. The key
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3.2 Marriage

Like other areas of personal life and sexuality in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries (see Section 1.4), marriage was emerging as a more explicit area of social policy and state regulation, and parenthood and sexuality were being re-examined and reshaped within marriage. In Section 3 we explore changes in the legal framework for marriage and the gender divisions within it. We will begin by looking at one person's story
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3.1 Demographic changes

From the selective feminist historiography of fertility decline covered in the previous section, we can see how a historical approach that focuses on gender can illuminate the relationships between sexuality, personal lives and social policy. A feminist theoretical perspective concerned with agency and power in gender relations has been particularly helpful in exploring the changes in sexual practices that resulted in fertility decline. It has also drawn attention to the connections between p
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1.6 Using a historical approach

By adopting a historical approach we gain some distance from the present and everyday, viewing more clearly our taken-for-granted assumptions. Today's formations of parenthood and sexualities did not suddenly appear fully formed, but are the results of centuries of change. By looking at a particular historical phenomenon, fertility decline in Britain, we can explore some of the tensions and contradictions between deeply embedded and newer ideas and practices emerging at that time. These strug
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1.5 The personal

The close relationship between parenthood and sexuality illustrates the importance of the personal in social policy in a number of ways. First, it shows that the growing interest in procreation, sexuality and parenthood by policy makers was never a one-way process whereby policy was simply imposed on people. Rather, individuals who set new terms for their experience of parenthood through changes in procreative sexuality were also helping to shape the policy formations within which they found
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1.3 Sexuality and parenthood

In this unit sexuality is used to refer to heterosexual reproductive sex, relationships and relations, and the meanings and discursive constructions which are associated with these. Sexual practices resulting in conception and the experience of parenthood are among the few remaining areas that are considered a ‘natural’ part of human existence. Just as sexuality has been seen as a ‘natural’, elemental drive in human identity, parenthood has also been closely associated with
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • use a feminist historical approach to critically examine theories about how and why fertility decline in Britain occurred and to explore the importance of gender and power in reshaping parenthood and sexuality in social policy and personal lives;

  • use histories of marriage, sexuality, parenthood, birth control and population policy to illuminate the connections between procreative sexuality, personal live
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Introduction

Sexuality and parenthood encompass some of the most ordinary and yet most profound experiences that life has to offer. Until recently these two domains were intricately linked, and the idea that it is possible and desirable to have sex solely for pleasure without risk of pregnancy or having children is a relatively new one. This split between sexuality and parenthood has come about through a myriad of interlinking social changes, including shifting social relations and attitudes to sexuality,
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References

Abernathy, W.J., Clark, K. and Kantrow, A. (1983) Industrial Renaissance: Producing a Competitive Future for America, Basic Books, New York.
Berndt, E.R. and Rappaport, N. (2000) ‘Price and quality of desktop and mobile personal computers: a quarter century of history’, paper presented at the National Bureau of Economic Research’s Summer Institute 2000 session on ‘Price, Output and Productivi
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Weather and The Water Cycle
Students will be able to do activities dealing with weather and water cycles. Learn what makes weather wet and wild, forecast and predict weather.
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Evolution has resulted in changes in the sizes and forms of organisms. Everything about the biology of an animal, including its physiology, anatomy, and ecology, is influenced by its body size. Frequently there seem to be limits on the sizes that different organisms can attain, even when larger size might be thought to be evolutionarily advantageous. Often an increase or decrease in size is correlated with a change in proportions. Understanding the significance of a particular morphology or inte
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Learn Hindi Daily Show – What do you like? – past tense with intransitive verbs – Clever Bird
“What do you like?”  “I like to study Hindi.” Today we go over these phrases.  One is the phrase of the day and the other is covered in answer to...
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6.6 Delivery style
Effective communication is the key to a successful presentation. This unit will provide you with a systematic approach to develop the necessary skills. It is important to understand that effective presentation skills can be practised and learned. It is the content of your presentation, and the simple delivery of clear and reasoned arguments, which will help you to achieve your objectives.
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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

Magnetic Attraction
Students complete a series of six short investigations involving magnets to learn more about their properties. Students also discuss engineering uses for magnets and brainstorm examples of magnets in use in their everyday lives.
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Motor Exam: Normal Exam: Pathological Reflexes
Pathological reflexes: frontal release signs: - snout, root, palmomental. These patterned behavior reflexes appear when there is damage to the frontal lobes, which inhibits these primitive reflexes. In the normal person these reflexes are absent. Pressing a tongue blade on the lips tests for the snout reflex. The abnormal response is a pouting of the lips. The root reflex is tested for by gently stroking the lateral upper lip. The abnormal response is movement of the mouth towards the stimuli. S
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Darwin
This Web site, created to complement the Museum's Darwin exhibit, examines the man and theory that changed the course of science and society.
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1.4 Experiencing dyslexia

To illustrate just how problematic the idea of ‘abnormality’ is in practice, we will consider the condition of developmental dyslexia, dyslexia for short. Dyslexia is relatively common and you may have knowledge of it from friends or personal experience. The following section illustrates many of the difficulties experienced by people with dyslexia, and it also highlights more generally some of the problems that can occur if you are not, in some sense, ‘normal’.
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