References

Broham, J. (1996) ‘Postwar development in the Asian NICs: does the neoliberal model fit reality?’, Economic Geography, vol.72, pp. 107–30.
Castree, N., Coe, N.M., Ward, K. and Samers, M. (2004) Spaces of Work: Global Capitalism and Geographies of Labour, London, Sage.

Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • explain the main characteristics of ‘sweatshops’, and their presence in today's system of globalised production

  • set out the arguments for and against overseas sweatshop exploitation

  • consider how far the consumption of cheap branded goods makes consumers responsible for the conditions under which they are made

  • show how consumers are distanced from overseas sweatshop exploitation, a
    Author(s): The Open University

    License information
    Related content

    Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to use material:

Course image: Sorin Mutu in Flickr made available under
Author(s): The Open University

6.1 Introduction

The international level can be viewed as an arena of politics in its own right and not just as a context for states and other actors. If we think of the international world in this way, how should relations between states, and other actors on the international stage, be constructed? To what extent should those relations be regulated? We can ask whether relations between states, and states' policy making, should be dictated by allegedly universally shared human rights principles, or by other o
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Engineering small worlds: micro and nano technologies
How do you see the invisible? Today, mechanical, electrical, chemical and biological engineering of ‘small worlds’ is revolutionising our lives. Atomic Force Microscopes are an important tool when creating engineering solutions on the micro and nano scale. The 4 video tracks on this album examine the AFM's engineering and operation, explain how it can be adapted for a wide range of applications and describe its use in the life sciences and semiconductor industries. This material forms part o
Author(s): The OpenLearn team

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

Tackling noise pollution
Noise is one of the forms of pollution that characterises industrial societies. Many forms of noise in the urban environment, including traffic and aircraft noise, can cause significant harm in varying degrees. So just how much noise are you exposed to? The tracks in this album explain the measurement and control of noise and look at how motor engineers and road researchers are trying to cut down on noise pollution from transport. Lastly, two audio tracks featuring Dr Shahram Taherzadeh and Dr S
Author(s): The OpenLearn team

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

Ebusiness technologies: foundations and practice
Major retailers today face a major challenge to manage and distribute goods from suppliers around the world. What systems enable big business to keep in touch with latest sales information from their stores? How are Internet and Web technologies and their associated applications used in practice? This album explores how these technologies are changing the way businesses operate internally and externally. The seven video tracks examine a Tesco supply chain and present an insider's view of web ser
Author(s): The OpenLearn team

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

Water Treatment
Do you think about where your water comes from? In the UK each of us uses an average of about 150 litres of water per day! The seven video tracks in this album consider issues of demand and quality in water supply as well as treatment processes. They give information on methods of minimising waste, emergency water treatment and effluent control. This material forms part of T308 Environmental monitoring, modelling and control.Author(s): The OpenLearn team

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

Waste Management
How much do you think about what you throw away? A waste management cycle is essential for a sustainable future. This album considers the policy and legislation that is driving waste management processes across the EU. By modelling the overall environmental impacts of solid waste disposal methods, the UK government has now created a hierarchy of waste and local management strategies. The 12 video tracks in this album offer an in depth look at each of these processes, concentrating on waste coll
Author(s): The OpenLearn team

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

2.1 Boiling water

Whether it's to wash clothes, make a cup of tea, or just make it safe to drink, water often has to be heated – sometimes to boiling point. There are many ways to do this, but a very common means is some form of electric water-boiler, such as a kettle or an urn. In all but the crudest ones, a device is fitted to ensure that heating does not continue once the boiling point of water is reached.

In deciding on the type and design of such a device, we can suppose that a company manufacturi
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

4.1 Types of projects

Formal projects are a familiar part of nearly all work situations and are often a staple part of some organisations. Because of this it is worth looking at some of the features of formal projects and their management, as they have some different characteristics from other ongoing activities.

To write about projects, we have to define what they are and describe how they arise. Projects and project work are often contrasted with process: 'process', in this sense, describes the normal day-
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

3.2.7 Ways that groups go wrong

Before leaving Reading 2, it is worth mentioning some of the characteristic ways that groups 'go wrong'. Why should a group, asked to design a camel, produce a horse? You might expect that when we pool the talents, experience and knowledge of a group, the result would be better, not worse, than that of any individual member. But as groups design 'horses' so frequently there must be some fairly familiar decision-making processes at work. Probably the most common problems are those that have al
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

3.1 Belonging to a group

Because work groups are of central significance in the functioning of an organisation they have been studied intensively, and much has been written about group processes. In this reading it would be inappropriate to attempt to review this vast literature, which covers an enormous range of topics and aspects of groups. Instead, I focus attention here on two particular aspects of groups. First, I examine the nature of the contracts within a group: what it is that people gain from belonging to a
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

2.3.1 The functional team

The hierarchical structure described above divides groups of people along largely functional lines: people working together carry out the same or similar functions. A functional team is a team in which work is carried out within such a functionally organised group. This can be project work. In organisations in which the functional divisions are relatively rigid, project work can be handed from one functional team to another in order to complete the work. For example, work on a new product can
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

2.7 Cabling

A distinction must be made between the optical fibre – a single strand of glass fibre – and the optical-fibre cable consisting of one or more strands of fibre and various protective coverings.

Bare optical fibre is fragile and vulnerable, and the cabling must provide the properties given below.

  • Tensile strength: The cable should prevent the fibre being strained when the cable is under tension. When the cable is being laid, for example,
    Author(s): The Open University

    License information
    Related content

    Copyright © 2016 The Open University

6 Radiation

All the primary vibrators we discussed in the previous section can to some extent communicate vibrations to the surrounding air and hence radiate sound. However, some radiate sound better than others. Air columns, for example, radiate sound quite well. Even though only around 1% of the energy possessed by a vibrating air column is radiated away, this is enough to produce a clearly audible note.

Similarly, circular membranes and circular plates are also good sound radiators. They have a
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

5.2 Vibrating string: speed of wave propagation

If standing waves are set up when two travelling waves moving in opposite directions interact, then how are standing waves set up on a string and why are they set up only at certain frequencies?

To help answer these questions, I want you first to imagine a length of string that is fixed at one end and held in someone's hand at the other. Suppose the person holding the string flicks their end of the string in such a way that an upward pulse is sent along the string.

As the pulse pa
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

4 Excitation

For a player to be able to sound a musical instrument, there must be a means of inputting energy to set up the vibration. This energy may be introduced in a short, sharp burst or continuously over a period of time.

In the case of brass instruments such as the trumpet and trombone, and woodwind instruments such as the flute and oboe, the player feeds in energy by blowing air into the instrument. The energy can be supplied in a short burst – in which case short-lived ‘staccato’ note
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

2 What is a musical instrument?

Figure 1