3.1 Claims about crime

Definitions beg questions. So do social narratives and stories. Again, we need, as social scientists, to begin with an analytical task. What are the key claims that are being made in the common-sense story of the problem of crime? What are the core arguments that hold the whole thing together? There are a number of these, but two seem to be particularly important.

Claim 1: UK society in the immediate
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2.2 A society frightened by crime?

We do not have to look too far to find someone saying that the UK is a society gripped by rising levels of crime, anti-social behaviour and incivility; or that disorder threatens social stability. The criminologist Robert Reiner suggests that ‘in the last 40 years, we have got used to thinking of crime, like the weather and pop music, as something that is always getting worse’ (Reiner, 1996, p. 3). So who is telling this story?

Most of us will have heard older family members and fri
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Learning outcomes

On completion of this unit, you should be able to:

  • give a definition of crime (in terms of society);

  • state the steps and factors that lead from a crime to conviction;

  • illustrate how society views crime ‘with fear and fascination’;

  • give examples of the relationship between crime rates and the evidence to support these claims.


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4 Conclusion

  • Since its invention, modern sport has been closely linked to the mass media as a central part of popular culture.

  • The media have expanded the reach of sports audiences and helped populate and enrich professional sport.

  • Sport provides exciting content for the media through comprehensible narratives and modern heroes and celebrities.

  • The media are selective in their coverage of sport, demonstrating inequaliti
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3 Personal agency, participation and refusal: gathering evidence

While it is difficult to exaggerate the impact of this construction of ‘welfare dependency’, particularly in the USA, this construction does not go unchallenged. A very wide range of groups of people who are poor or who are subject to discrimination succeed in shaping welfare arrangements by evading, refusing or resisting policies. Historically, there are numerous examples of collective agency in resisting and reshaping welfare policies. In the USA, Fox Piven and Cloward (1977) trace the
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Introduction

This unit is an adapted extract from the course Personal lives and social policy (DD305)


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4.3 Reconstituting older people's personal lives in uncertain times

The multiplicity of different ‘work-endings’ at the close of the twentieth century, combined with the increasing mobilisation of older people through pensioner and ‘third age’ movements, effectively destabilised the institution of retirement and the associated orthodoxy that older age began at the age of 60 or 65 years.

However, voices from within the pensioner movement were marginalised in the process of reconstitution that ensued. A neo-liberal redrawing of the boundari
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4.1 Introduction

The 1970s marked a period in which the cessation of the ‘normal’ period of full-time employment at 60 or 65 years had become the accepted orthodoxy. The personal lives of older people had thus become constituted outside the domain of paid employment and within the arena of public and private welfare. As we illustrated in the preceding section, pensions, organised around fixed ages of retirement based on chronological measurements of age, played a crucial role in this process. Further, as
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3.3 Parenthood

The deeply embedded inequalities of marriage were also prevalent in parenthood, reflecting the key role of gender in structuring the inequalities found in both. Under common law fathers were given complete control over their children, while mothers had no rights of custody, care or access if the marriage broke down, or even if the husband died. A man could be adulterous or fail to provide for his family without depriving him of his rights. The Poor Laws provided the only legal requirement on
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4.3.2 Network externalities and increasing returns to scale

The reader should ask herself the following question: Would I subscribe to a telephone service knowing that nobody else subscribes to a telephone service?

The answer should be: Of course not! What use will anyone have from having a telephone when there is no one to talk to?

(Shy, 2001, p. 3)

The uncertainty surrounding production in the introductory phase, which places such importance on
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Learning outcomes

On completion of this unit, you should be able to:

  • identify criteria to evaluate the politics of racial violence.


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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able:

  • identify the value and best way of note taking.


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Design thinking
Are you ever frustrated with something that you thought you could design better? Design thinking can structure your natural creativity to come up with solutions to all kinds of problems, and have fun in the process too! First published on Thu, 22 Dec 2011 as Author(s): Creator not set

Key ideas

In this unit, we will take an introductory look at two key ideas: forms of data handled by a software system, and the processes that may be applied to that data. These ideas are illustrated by a particular application — a supermarket till — but they are of general relevance in designing software systems. Important terminology will be highlighted in bold.

In this unit we will look at some commonly occurring forms of data. We start with fundamental forms, such as
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4.11.2 Scanners (again)

In Subsection 4.2.5, scanners came up as devices that can convert text into digital form. They do this by making a digital image of the page and then passing this image to an OCR system to distinguish the various characters. However, they are more often used to take images such as photographs and printed
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4.11.1 Digital still cameras and camcorders

These devices are now widely and (fairly) cheaply available. There is no film. You point your camera, take your shot and get a compressed digital image that can be transferred straight onto a computer, where it can be edited or printed. Digital still cameras usually compress their images into JPEG format and store them on a tiny, removable memory card inside the camera; the latest digital camcorders can record in MPEG format, stored on a special tape. Both devices work by means of an electron
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4.2.3 Text capture devices

Practically, how can we take text across the boundary?

SAQ 8

What are the main devices for transforming text into digital form inside the computer?

Answer


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3.10 A final word – analogue and digital worlds

So there we have it. On the one hand is our world, an analogue world – a world of light and sound, of taste and touch. On the other side of the boundary is the computer's digital world – a bleak world of binary numbers.

Before I leave the topic, though, I should point out that some of the points I've made may be controversial.

For a start, it's not entirely clear whether the world we inhabit is fundamentally analogue. Quantum theory tells us, for instance, that quantiti
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3.3.2 Enhancing the perceptual system

Magnificently evolved though it is, our sensory system is nothing special. We do not see as well as birds; our hearing is feeble compared to that of bats and some forest-dwelling mammals. Our sense of smell can't compare with that of dogs or pigs. There are many things we don't detect at all – radio waves, for instance.

In one capacity, though, humans are supreme: we have learned to enhance our perceptual systems with instruments. For example, the human eye has only a limited p
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