2.1 Where water occurs and how we measure it

When astronauts first ventured to the Moon in the late 1960s, they were captivated by a vision of the Earth in colour as it had never been seen before (Figure 2). It is not surprising that, after pictures like this were published, the Earth became known as the ‘blue planet’.

Figure 2
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • read data presented in tables;

  • use scientific notation to express both large and small quantities;

  • appreciate why chemists use different models to represent molecules;

  • identify the number and type(s) of atom present in a molecule from its chemical formula;

  • identify the reactants and products of a reaction in a chemical equation;

  • read and write using chemical
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Introduction

This unit is an introduction to chemistry concepts, using water as the main illustration. Much of the unit is devoted to exploring the smallest water particle – a water molecule – what it is and how it gives rise to the particular properties of water. The unit also explains powers of ten and scientific notation, which are a convenient way of expressing both very large and very small numbers. It is a good introduction to science.

This unit is an adapted extract from the course
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions). This content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

The content acknowledged be
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4 Conclusions

Activity 3

Read back over Section 3. Make two columns on a piece of pap
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3.4 Specialisation within language areas: brain scanning

Is there any evidence from the undamaged brain that the view derived from aphasia is indeed correct? The most useful methodologies here use either PET or functional MRI (fMRI) scanning to establish which parts of the brain are active in particular tasks. The difficulty is that a standard linguistic task, such as understanding a sentence's meaning, involves phonology and syntax and semantics, and thus is not helpful when trying to tease out which of these subtasks happens in which areas.


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3.3 Specialisation within language areas: aphasia

Aphasia is caused by localised brain damage, for example due to a stroke or an automobile accident. General intellectual functioning is not necessarily impaired, as the person can still perform non-linguistic tasks. Nor is the understanding and production of language necessarily completely abolished. Instead, there are highly specific patterns of impairment in the way language is processed.

Aphasia is divided into two main types, fluent and non-fluent. For reasons which will become appa
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2.6 Summary of Section 2

Human language is a complex communication system that allows the generation of infinitely many different messages by combining the basic sounds (phonemes) into words, and combining the words into larger units called sentences. The way the sounds combine is governed by phonological rules, and the way the words combine is governed by syntactic rules.

Phonemes can be divided into the vowels, which are made by vibration of the vocal folds, and consonants, which are abrupt sounds made by bri
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2.4 From phoneme to meaning: the semantic problem

For a vervet monkey, once an alarm call has been assigned to the correct phonological class – leopard, snake or eagle – then the task is straightforward indeed. Each of these sound patterns is connected in long-term memory to some ‘prototype’ of the predator in question, including what it looks like, what it does and so on. The eagle call always means eagle, whatever the context. The activation of the brain trace for the eagle call invariably activates the
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2.3 From ear to phoneme: the phonological problem

The phonological problem is the problem of knowing which units (words, calls) are being uttered. The speech signal is a pattern of sound, and sound consists of patterns of minute vibrations in the air. Sounds vary in their frequency distribution. The sound of a flute playing is relatively harmonic. This means that the energy of the sound is concentrated at certain frequencies of vibration. A plot of the energy of a sound against the frequency at which that energy occurs is called a spe
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2.2 Generativity and duality of patterning

Let us now reconsider the sentence you heard in the imaginary scenario at the beginning of this unit. Here it is again.

  • (1)  My dad's tutor's no joker, and he told me the TMA's going to hit home with a bang.

Activity 2

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7.3 The descending auditory pathway

The auditory system transmits information from the cochlea to the auditory cortex. Another system follows a similar path, but in reverse, from the cortex to the cochlear nuclei. This is the descending auditory pathway. In general, the descending pathway may be regarded as exercising an inhibitory function by means of a sort of negative feedback. It may also determine which ascending impulses are to be blocked and which are allowed to pass to other centres in the brain. The olivocochlear bundl
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • describe and comment on the main features of a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of stars in general, and of stars in a cluster;

  • outline a broad model of stellar evolution based on the observed properties of large numbers of stars, and describe how stars of different initial mass might evolve;

  • describe the effects of interstellar material on starlight, and outline some of the processes by which such material
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4.3 Calcium (Ca)

About 40% of the total mineral mass of bones is calcium, making it the most abundant mineral in the body. In bone, it is combined with phosphorus, as well as oxygen and hydrogen, in a mineral compound called hydroxyapatite. Calcium is also present in the fluids in the body, and there it occurs in the form of dissolved ions. An ion is an atom that carries a very small electrical charge, which can be either positive (+) or negative (−), depending on the ion.

You may recall from our stud
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4.1 Introduction to minerals and why we need them

Both vitamins and minerals are essential in the diet in small quantities and so they are often grouped together as micronutrients.

Activity 24

Which items in the diet are classified as macronutrients?

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Introduction

This unit is an adapted extract from the Open University course Human genetics and health issues (SK195)

In this unit you will learn how advances in genetics could change the way in which diseases are diagnosed and managed. The advent of predictive medicine, based on more detailed DNA profiling of individual genotypes using technologies like gene chips, rather than screening for
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1.5.2 Sedimentary processes

Sedimentary grains are formed when the rocks at the Earth's surface are slowly broken up physically by exposure to wind and frost, and decomposed (chemically) by rainwater or biological action. These processes are collectively termed weathering. Once a rock has been broken up by weathering, the small rock fragments and individual mineral grains can be eroded from their place of origin by water, wind or glaciers and transported to be deposited elsewhere as roughly horizontal layers of sediment
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1.3 Minerals and rocks

To begin with, it is necessary to explain the meanings of the two terms ‘minerals’ and ‘rocks’.


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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • explain the difference between a mineral and a rock;

  • describe the textural differences between igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks;

  • account for these differences in terms of the processes that produce these rocks;

  • classify igneous rocks according to their grain size and mineralogical composition;

  • recognise the difference between a body fossil and a trace fossil;

    <
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The Nature Explorers South Mogollon Rim Part 5 of 11
By: thenatureexplorers With elevations ranging from 5000 feet with a Chihuahuan Desert ecosystem to mixed conifers at 9000 feet, the South Mogollon Rim is comprised of many diverse species of plants and animals from ducks to lizards.
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