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4 Comment on the audio clips

In the audio clips, Angela Yih defined fuel poverty as any household which had to spend more than ten per cent of its income on energy, (believed to apply to 700,000 people in Scotland). This is, of course, a rather vague definition, one that conveys nothing about the effectiveness, or otherwise, of what is spent on keeping warm. As you heard, many people spent as much as 20 per cent or more of their income on fuel, and were still unable to heat their homes adequately in winter. However, this
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3.1 Clips 1 to 3

Clip 1

This first clip introduces the issue of fuel poverty.

2.2.2 Florence Foster

In 2000, Florence Foster was in her sixties. For a number of years, she had lived in a tenement in Dundee owned by a private landlord. As she describes in the programme, her accommodation was extremely damp and difficult to heat. There was green mould growing in the wardrobe in her bedroom, and all the window frames were rotten. She was dependent on electric fires for heating, which she had to pay for through a card meter. Her weekly income did not enable her to put sufficient cards in the me
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2.2.1 Thomas Marnie

Figure 3
Thomas Marnie

At the time of recording, Thomas Marnie was in his fifties. He had worked in a jute, and later a polypropylene fibre factory
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7 Audio clip 4: Paul

Paul was 30 years old when he was interviewed. He had been in and out of homelessness for most of his adult life, but had become a volunteer with the Cyrenians. He was living in a shared house with some other volunteers.

Paul spent much of his childhood in a caravan in Happy Valley, near the sea, with his parents, brothers and sisters. At 21, when he was living with his girlfriend and her parents, his daughter was born. When she was two months old, they were kicked out, and Paul went to
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5 Quality of life

‘Quality of life’ is beginning to be seen as significant by health policy makers. But this raises all kinds of problems about evaluating initiatives to promote wellbeing and quality of life.

If health is difficult to define then quality of life is even harder. You will have difficulty finding a tight definition. As George and Bearon state:

On the whole, social scientists have failed to provide consistent
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4.1 Introduction: the social context of social work

Extract 1 discussed the four components of good practice: Knowledge, Skills, Values and Process. From Extract 2 you will now have an understanding of ‘individual people’ in soci
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3.4 Case study 2

A widely used approach in child care was the ‘curative’ policy (Midwinter, 1994). This sought to treat those children and adults deemed deficient in some way in locations specially set up for the purpose. These institutions were often forbidding places, offering a harsh ‘cure’ to those unfortunate enough to be admitted to them. This was the fate of many disabled children in the course of the 20th century. Of particular relevance is Out of Sight: The Experience of Disability 1900–
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3.3 Case study 1

For much of the last century, many children who would today be regarded as being in need were caught up in the long-running child migration scheme. This scheme had been running throughout the 19th century and into the 20th century and its role was to export children to the outposts of the Empire. In all, it is estimated that 150,000 children were exported in this way (Bean and Melville, 1989). The scheme continued to run throughout the post-war years, which saw a rapid expansion of children's
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Introduction

Some elite athletes in the United Kingdom are provided with financial support to allow them to train and prepare for competition. Where does the money come from to finance this? This unit will examine this question by looking at the funding of elite sport in the UK.

This unit is an adapted extract from the Open University course Introduction to sport, fitness and management (E112)
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Acknowledgements

This unit is taken from Perspectives on Complementary and Alternative Medicine (Course Reader) which forms part of the core text for the Open University course K221 Perspectives on Complementary and Alternative Medicine, (eds Tom Heller, Geraldine Lee-Treweek, Jeanne Katz, Julie Stone and Sue Spurr) (The Open University) published by Routledge, Taylor and Francis in association with The Open University. Copyright © The Open University 2005.

Except for third party materia
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2.13 Conclusion

All therapeutic relationships can harm as well as heal. In orthodox medicine, the bulk of the responsibility is placed on the doctor, because healing is attributed to specific effects brought about through the doctor's diagnostic and technical expertise. In CAM relationships, where users are expected to exercise self-responsibility, it may be inappropriate to focus solely on the shortcomings of the therapist (even though the law is unlikely to recognise mutual responsibilities when therapy go
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2.7 The failure of CAM therapeutic relationships: breach of boundaries

In this section, failures caused by breach of boundaries are discussed under the following headings:

  • ‘wounded healers’

  • creating dependency to satisfy practitioners’ emotional and financial needs

  • sexual abuse and exploitation.

To reiterate a point made earlier, breaches of the therapeutic relationship cover a spectrum. Some breaches invariably thwart a successful therapeutic outcome (for example,
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2.4.3 How CAM therapists impose their views on users

As most people do not have a wide knowledge of complementary perspectives and philosophies, the therapeutic relationship can break down because of a mismatch between what the practitioner offers and what the user of the service wants. The practitioner's ideas about health, illness, mind and body may be at odds with the user's, which can lead the user to find another therapist who offers therapy that is more congruent with their beliefs.

The scholar Ursula Sharma argues that users of CAM
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1.4.5 M is for Method

Method is about the way in which a piece of information is produced. This is quite a complex area as different types of information are produced in different ways. These are a few suggestions to look out for:

Opinions – A lot of information is based on the opinion of individuals. They may or not be experts in their field (see P for Provenance) but the key message is to be clear that it is just an opinion and must be valued as such.

Research – You don’t have t
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1.4.1 PROMPT

There is so much information available on the internet on every topic imaginable. But how do you know if it is any good? And if you find a lot more information than you really need, how do you decide what to keep and who to discard?

In this section we are going to introduce a simple checklist to help you to judge the quality of the information you find. Before we do this, spend a few minutes thinking about what is meant by information quality.

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1.3.3 Books and electronic books

Books are a good source of information. The publishing process (where a book is checked by an editor before publishing, and often reviewed by another author) means that books are reliable sources of information, although they may need to be evaluated for bias. A growing number of books can be found online.

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Introduction

This unit will help you to identify and use information in health and lifestyle, whether for your work, study or personal purposes. Experiment with some of the key resources in this subject area, and learn about the skills which will enable you to plan searches for information, so you can find what you are looking for more easily. Discover the meaning of information quality, and learn how to evaluate the information you come across. You will also be introduced to the many different ways of or
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3.1 Social work values and legal values

Social work practice is founded on and informed by a value base; however, this value base is uncertain and changing (Shardlow, 1998). It is important that practitioners are able to reflect on their values and prejudices and consider the implications of these for practice. The next activity requires you to think about this before going on to look in more detail at what is meant by social work values.

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2.1 The nature of the social work task

Social work is a responsible and demanding job. Practitioners work in social settings characterised by enormous diversity, and they perform a range of roles, requiring different skills. Public expectations, agency requirements and resources and the needs of service users all create pressures for social workers. The public receives only a snapshot of a social worker's responsibilities and, against a background of media concentration on the sensational, the thousands of successful outcomes and
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