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6.3 The relationship between making, interpreting and applying rules

Although the processes of making, interpreting and applying rules can be explored separately, as we have done in this unit, it is important to realise that they are all part of one larger process. A new rule is often made because the interpretation and application of an existing rule does not solve the problems which that rule now has to confront. In turn, that new rule may be drafted in such a way that its interpretation leads to consequences that were unintended by the rule-maker, and the p
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6.2 Applying other people's rules

The process of interpretation is very closely related to that of application. The reason is simple – before applying a rule, the person applying it must interpret it to see whether the conduct in question is one to which the rule applies. Sometimes this will be straightforward, and sometimes not, as will be seen in Activity 7. The purpose of this activity
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5.2.2 Avoiding absurdity

One such strategy is to be as true to the literal meaning as is possible but to ensure, so far as the words allow, an interpretation which avoids absurdity. In the case of the rule I have just set out, this would mean an interpretation which ensured that only those customers who had caused breakages were obliged to pay for them.

This approach works well in most cases, but not always. Take, for example, another rule posted up in a shop selling china and glass:

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4.2 Formulating rules

Activity 4 should have shown you that the language used for making rules can sometimes make them difficult to understand. Given that we can only comply with a rule if we know what it means, this is a big problem! In this part of the unit we are going to look at the process of making rules in more detail – and you are going to have the opportunity to make a rule that can be understood and which is effective in achieving what it sets out to do.

It is worth restating that rules are made
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4.1 Introduction

We have looked at the way in which policy informs the development of rules, and you have had an opportunity to develop your reasoning skills by applying your understanding of a set of rules to some factual situations. One of the issues which came out of Part B was that sometimes in applying rules the language in which the rules are written makes it difficult to know exactly what is meant. In Part C we will be looking at this problem in a little more detail. In particular, we will be looking a
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3.1 Introduction

Formal rules do not just appear from nowhere! In this part we will be exploring how such rules are the product of a process of policy making. As an example, we will be using the Irish Government's policy on banning smoking in the workplace, and the law which arose out of this policy. Part B will also provide you with an opportunity to apply some of the reasoning skills you have been developing by applying your understanding of the Irish law to some factual situations.

One of the most ob
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Summary of Part A

After studying Part A you should be able to:

  • describe what is meant by a formal rule;

  • identify a formal rule;

  • describe the problems associated with rule making.


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2.2 The problems of rule making

It goes without saying that making rules is a complicated process. Just how complicated is illustrated by the American legal theorist Professor Lon Fuller. In his book The Morality of Law, which was first published in 1964, he explored the relationship between law and morality, and the criteria by which we should evaluate a legal system (one form of a system of rules). In the passage you are going to read in Activity 2, Fuller tells the story of a fictional law-maker, Rex, who comes to
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Acknowledgements

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Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

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3.5 The language of law

A potential barrier to understanding, which those new to law can find off-putting, is the use of specialist terminology. This contributes to the perception of law as an elitist and difficult area of study and is something that requires further explanation. Many professions (and social groups) develop their own forms of language to communicate effectively and, in some cases, to signify group membership. In this sense legal language is not unique, but is does have a formal character which can s
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2.3 Social work and social change

The social work profession in Scotland is undergoing a period of significant change at the beginning of the twenty-first century. In a process which largely mirrors developments across the UK, new systems for the education and regulation of social workers have been introduced to improve standards in the provision of social services, to raise public confidence and protect service users. For the first time entrants to the profession are required to obtain an undergraduate degree in social work,
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3.2 Is there a right to privacy in the UK?

From these cases it seems that a duty of confidence clearly exists where confidential information comes to the knowledge of the media. However, the courts are not willing to limit the media's freedom of expression where the issues concern extramarital affairs. It appears that there must be some significant countervailing interest in order to uphold the right to confidence; in Naomi Campbell's case that countervailing interest was that she wished to protect the integrity of her medical treatme
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6.5 The purposive approach

This approach has emerged in more recent times. Here the court is not just looking to see what the gap was in the old law, it is making a decision as to what they felt Parliament meant to achieve. Lord Denning in the Court of Appeal stated in Magor and St. Mellons Rural District Council v Newport Corporation (1950), ‘we sit here to find out the intention of Parliament and of ministers and carry it out, and we do this better by filling in the gaps and making sense of the enactment by
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6.3 The golden rule

This rule is a modification of the literal rule. It states that if the literal rule produces an absurdity, then the court should look for another meaning of the words to avoid that absurd result. The rule was closely defined by Lord Wensleydale in Grey v Pearson (1857) HL Cas 61, who stated:

The grammatical and ordinary sense of the words is to be adhered to unless that would lead to some absurdity or some r
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4.3 Summary of accurate law reporting

This section stressed the importance of accurate law reporting which allows for legal principles to be collated, identified and accessed. I examined where you might locate case reports on particular areas of the law. These are:

  • Year Books (1275–1535)

  • Private reports (1535–1865)

  • Modern reports (1865 to present)

  • The Law Reports

  • Weekly Law Reports (citation WLR)

  • All
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4.2.10 DVD-ROMs and internet facilities

As in most other fields, the growth of information technology has revolutionised law reporting and law finding. Many of the law reports mentioned above are available both on DVD-ROM and via the internet through legal databases such as Justis, Lawtel, Lexis-Nexis and Westlaw UK. Many such databases, however, require you to complete a registration process and there may be a charge for the service. Altrnatively they may be available, for free, to registered university or college students studyin
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3.3.2 The styling of legal cases

Activity 8 asks you to read Reading 1 – a short extract from The English Legal System (Slapper and Kelly, 2003) – and identify what you consider are the advantages of allowing the House of Lords to overrule its previous decisions. This extract provides you with examples of instances when the House of Lords has not followed its own previous decisions.

This may be the first time you have read the name of a legal case. Case names are written in a particular style. For example, t
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2.7.1 Try some yourself

1 Evaluate the following:

  • (a) 34

  • (b) 3Author(s): The Open University

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1.4.8: Graphical conversions: summing up

This section started by looking at conversion graphs which were straight lines passing through the origin of the graph. The intercept in those cases was zero, and only one number – the gradient – was needed to describe the relationship between the quantities plotted on the horizontal and vertical axes. In the more general case, the graph is still a straight line with a constant gradient, but the line no longer goes through the origin. An extra number – the intercept – is used to pin t
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1.4.5 Graphical conversions: How would you go about drawing a graph to convert from one scale to the

First you need some data about corresponding temperatures on each scale. In the case of Celsius and Fahrenheit, there are two fixed points of reference: the freezing and boiling points of water. On the Celsius scale, the freezing point is defined to be 0°C; on the Fahrenheit scale, the freezing point is 32°F. So if you plot degrees Celsius on the horizontal axis and degrees Fahrenheit on the vertical axis of a graph, the freezing point of water is represented by a point with the coordinates
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