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1 Object-based learning

Harnessing the power of original, real things, that's what learning in museums is all about …

Osborne (2004)

Pupils are handling a Second World War gas mask. This is part of their work on the Home Front. They can feel the weight of the gas mask and smell the stifling warmth of the mask on their face. This gives them a depth of understanding that nothing else could. For the moment they are
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3.1 Using and developing a popular topic: migration

‘Oh, what joy to see you again.’

Just one line from a folk song on a very familiar theme, to be found in traditional Irish music, can help us imagine the magnitude of the decision to migrate, especially if forced by hunger, oppression or fear. The line is written by a father to a son. They both know they will not see each other again.

Like many topics in geography, teaching migration well is challenging – because the human dimension is often multi-faceted and holds more subt
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Introduction

The current political agenda requires service users' views to be incorporated into the design of health and social care services (Department of Health, 2006). Services are assessed by the quality of the outcomes they provide for users. Frontline managers are responsible for gathering service user views on their needs. Whose views should be taken into account? How do managers gather views? This course helps you consider ways of getting feedback from service users, and shows the inclusive appro
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Epidemiology: An introduction
Public health interventions need to be built on an evidence base and part of this evidence comes from epidemiology: the study of how and why diseases occur. Epidemiology is a bit like a game of detection. It involves identifying diseases, finding out which groups of people are at risk, tracking down causes and so on. This free course, Epidemiology: An introduction, looks at some key types of data used in epidemiology, such as statistics on death and ill health, and introduces some techniques use
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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

Introduction

The MMR dispute is of enormous public significance and this course helps unravel why this has been an area of such dispute.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of postgraduate study in Science.


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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce materia
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3.2 Clips 4 to 5

Clip 4

In this clip, we hear about the problems faced by those in the private rented sector, and find out about EAGA.

1.10 Concepts of healing: philosophies underpinning CAM practice

Activity 5: Health beliefs in CAM

1 hour 0 minutes

Read the following accounts by individual CAM practitioners of four different modalities. These are personal perspective
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4.3.2 Wave power

When winds blow over the world's oceans, they cause waves. The power in such waves, as they gradually build up over very long distances, can be very great – as anyone watching or feeling that power eventually being dissipated on a beach will know.

Various technologies for harnessing the power of waves have been developed over the past few decades, of which the 'oscillating water column' (OWC) is perhaps the most widely used. In an OWC, the rise and fall of the waves inside an enclosed
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4.3.1 Wind energy

When solar radiation enters the earth's atmosphere, because of the curvature of the earth it warms different regions of the atmosphere to differing extents – most at the equator and least at the poles. Since air tends to flow from warmer to cooler regions, this causes what we call winds, and it is these air flows that are harnessed in windmills and wind turbines to produce power.

Wind power, in the form of traditional windmills used for grinding corn or pumping water, has been in use
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4.2 The US experience: wasteful innovation?

In the 1950s and 1960s many industrialised countries experienced a prolonged period of economic expansion which, together with the rise of consumerism, created an increased demand for domestic appliances. With ready access to cheap supplies of fuel, there was little or no incentive for manufacturers or consumers to worry about energy conservation. Nowhere was this more evident than in the US, as the following extract from the influential book Factor Four of the design developments in d
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Conclusion

This free course provided an introduction to studying Environment & Development. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance, and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner.


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2.7 Representing feedback through system dynamics diagrams

System dynamics diagrams, also sometimes called ‘stock flow’ diagrams, can be derived from causal diagrams, although in some cases it might be easier to start directly with the system dynamics diagramming technique, especially if you need to explore around one particular object’s attribute, such as population number.

System dynamics diagrams are drawn using four symbols: boxes representing attributes or ‘stocks’ of objects (e.g. level of water in a tank); valves representing
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2.3 Negative feedback and stability

If positive feedback results in change, then another mechanism must exist that creates stability. This is negative feedback.

What stops water hyacinth from taking over the world? Clearly, it is the lack of tropical freshwater. As the number of water hyacinth reaches the limits of their water body, there is a sudden increase in the death rate as offspring compete for the ever decreasing levels of sunlight. The sudden overcrowding allows the establishment of a negative feed
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3.1 Exploring your personal ecology

One of the simplest techniques one can use when investigating a complex situation using a systems approach is to jump between organisational, spatial and temporal scales and explore the relationships between these scales. In this activity the aim is to develop a Author(s): The Open University

1.3 Activities

In Activity 3A, you will be exploring your 'personal ecology' – the relationship between the physical places w
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1.1 Aim

The activities and resources in this section engage you in an interdisciplinary investigation of your personal ecology by looking at a range of temporal, spatial, and organisational scales – from the personal to the global, from the short term to the long term. The aim is to gather evidence to help you r
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2.1 Learning and culture

As discussed in Reading 1.6, the behaviour of all living organisms that determines their resource use is mostly controlled by a set of models encoded in their genetic material. Most significant changes in the behaviour of a particular species of organism are usually a result of genetic evolution. But, som
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1.1 Aim

This free course introduces you to the proposition that our mental models change through learning, and that the main
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