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4.6 References for Extract 3

British Association of Social Workers (BASW) (2002) A Code of Ethics for Social Workers, Birmingham, BASW.

O'Dowd, A. (2003) ‘Social work? That’s a proper job now: New training and rules have changed it for ever’, The Guardian Special Supplement: Social Care, 15 October, p. 7.


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4.5 Vulnerability and rights

One of the assumptions that is made in order to justify social workers making such life-changing judgements is that some people are vulnerable and therefore need decisions made on their behalf. This assumption is not held by everyone and is often challenged by groups and individuals representing service users and by service users themselves.

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2.6 Component 4: the social work process

The social work process comprises a sequence of actions or tasks which draw upon all of the components of practice discussed so far. The social work process rarely follows a clear linear route and is more often a fluid circular process whereby workers may move from assessment through to implementation and evaluation and back to assessment again. Despite this fluidity, some parts of the process, such as assessment, have clearly defined procedures guided by local or national policy. Some tasks
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2.3 Component 1: Knowledge

What exactly is meant by knowledge and theory and how can it inform practice? This question cannot be fully answered here, but the following section maps out the kinds of knowledge that are relevant to practice.


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2.2 The four components of good practice

Developing a knowledge base is only one aspect of learning. The knowledge you acquire will be assessed by the way in which you apply it to practice situations through your written work. Your practice and your reflections upon knowledge will be guided by your understanding and application of the four components of good practice: knowledge, skills, values and ethics, and the social work process.

The Aids to Practice cards in this unit are organised under the headings of the four componen
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1.2 Intensity

Exercise intensity can be measured using either heart rate or the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) method. We will look at each of these methods in turn. There are two methods of using heart rate to measure exercise intensity: the percentage of maximal heart rate method and the heart rate reserve (HRR), or karvonen method.

As its name suggests, the percentage of maximal heart rate method involves prescribing exercise at a certain percentage of maximum heart rate. To find out a person
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Introduction

Aerobic fitness is important for sports performance and health, but what sort of exercise should you be doing to develop your aerobic fitness? This unit will help you to answer this question by introducing you to principles of aerobic exercise prescription.

This unit is an adapted extract from the Open University course Introduction to sport, fitness and management (E112).


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Introduction

This unit takes you on a journey of discovery where you are invited to challenge ideas, both new and old, in relation to mental health. It is made up of a series of three extracts. The first extract, ‘Boundaries of explanation’, sets out the theme of boundaries: boundaries within and between groups; within and between explanatory frameworks; and within and between experiences of mental health and distress. The second extract, ‘Whose risk is it anyway?’, considers a critical account of
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3.22 Extract 3 References

Beauchamp, T. and Childress, J. (1994) Principles of Biomedical Ethics (4th edition), Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Cant, S. and Sharma, U. (eds) (1996) Complementary and Alternative Medicines: Knowledge in Practice, London, Free Association Books Ltd.

Department of Health (2001) The Expert Patient: A New Approach to Chronic Disease Management for the 21 st Century, London, DoH.

Ernst, E. (1996) ‘The ethics of complementary medicine’, Journal o
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3.5 The principles underlying ethical practice

Box 3 describes four principles that are central to an understanding of acting ethically.

Box 3 The principles of acting ethically

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2.8 The failure of CAM therapeutic relationships: wounded healers

Sometimes, practitioners allow their personal life and personal issues to become central to the therapeutic relationship. In a range of therapies, the practitioner is assumed to bring not only their skills but also their experiences to the therapeutic relationship. This has led to the concept of the ‘wounded healer’ (Nouwen, 1977): that is, a practitioner who, in experiencing physical, psychological or emotional pain, develops a greater understanding and empathy with other people's pain.
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1.9 Models of health care delivery: alternative or holistic models

Many CAM modalities have grown from a wide range of concepts of the body and health and healing that differ from the models discussed so far. As Fulder notes:

The body, in Chinese medicine, is energetic. In yoga and healing, the body is spiritual. In modern (conventional) medicine, the body is physicochemical. In homeopathy, it is phenomenological. In naturopathy it is vital, etc. All of these conceptions do not necess
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1.6.3 Mailing lists and newsgroups

Mailing or discussion lists are email-based discussion groups. When you send an email to a mailing list address, it is sent automatically to all the other members of the list.

The majority of academic-related mailing lists in the UK are maintained by JISCMail. You will find details of joining these mailing lists on the JISCMail website. Mailing lists
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1.4.8 Summary

In this section we have introduced you to the PROMPT checklist as a useful tool for assessing the quality of any piece of information. If you use it regularly you will find that you develop the ability to scan information quickly and identify strengths and weaknesses. As a closing exercise you might like to pick one of these websites:

Diagnose-Me.com

Author(s): The Open University

1.3.4 Databases

At a basic level, a database is a collection of information which can be searched. It is a way of storing, indexing, organising and retrieving information. You may have created one yourself to keep track of your references – or your friends' names and addresses. They are useful for finding articles on a topic, and can be used to search for many different types of information.

You may find some of the following databases useful for your topic. They contain different types of informatio
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1.2.3 Basic principles

Whatever resource you choose to use to find information on the internet, many of the same principles apply. Each source that you use will probably look quite different from the one you tried before, but you'll notice that there are always features that are similar – a box to type your search terms in, for instance, or a clickable help button. Different resources refer to the same functions using different terminology, but the principles behind them are exactly the same. The trick is to chec
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1.1.6 Keeping up-to-date

How familiar are you with the following different ways of keeping up to date with information; alerts, mailing lists, newsgroups, blogs, RSS, professional bodies and societies?

  • 5 – Very familiar

  • 4 – Familiar

  • 3 – Fairly familiar

  • 2 – Not very familiar

  • 1 – Not familiar at all


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1.1.4 Evaluating information

How well does the following statement describe your approach to evaluating the information that you use?

When I come across a new piece of information (e.g. a website, newspaper article) I consider the quality of the information, and based on that I decide whether or not to use it.

  • 5 – This is an excellent match; this is exactly what I do


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3.1 Social work values and legal values

Social work practice is founded on and informed by a value base; however, this value base is uncertain and changing (Shardlow, 1998). It is important that practitioners are able to reflect on their values and prejudices and consider the implications of these for practice. The next activity requires you to think about this before going on to look in more detail at what is meant by social work values.

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1.5 Accountability

Social workers have to act within the law and can be called upon to justify their actions to courts and managers as well as to service users. The law can define a worker's accountability in some detail. Furthermore, service users have a right to complain. Social workers are also employees and thus can be called upon to justify their actions to their line management and agency; this will be outlined by their agency requirements.


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