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3.3 Evaluation during implementation of a project

At this stage the project activities are monitored to determine how their timing, quality and cost match the plan. The results of this monitoring are reviewed to see whether the plan needs to be modified. New environmental conditions may indicate the need to change the organisation's strategic direction. It might be necessary in that case to re-align the project, so that the outcomes relate to the new direction. In some cases it may be necessary to abort the project, if it is no longer approp
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3.1 Evaluation while developing the vision

A project is often shaped through discussion among those developing the vision and direction of the project. They may agree in general terms about what is to be achieved, but have to make a number of choices before deciding how to proceed. It may be important to allow time for different views to be heard and considered, and for attitudes to change and – hopefully – converge.

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3.3 Task breakdown chart

The task breakdown technique is a very logical approach to identifying the tasks involved in a project. Some people may find it suits them better than using mind maps; other people may find the techniques complement each other.

To do a task breakdown chart, first draw a box at the top of a page with the project title inside it. Then mentally identify the main elements that go to make up the project as shown below.


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Life stories
This free course, Life stories, looks at the way in which objects, trends, cultures or disabilities may contribute to a person's identity, and the contribution that our own life stories make to who we are, and how remembering and revisiting our past may help us to move forward with our lives. First published on Wed, 10 Feb 2016 as Author(s): Creator not set

Becoming a critical social work practitioner
What does it take to become a critical practitioner in social work? This free course, Becoming a critical social work practitioner, will guide you through some important concepts. An understanding of 'critical perspectives' will help you take a positive and constructive approach to problems that arise in social work practice.
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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

8.1 Overview

Following the Scottish Parliament elections in May 2007, the balance of power and system of government in Scotland has changed significantly, giving rise to Scotland's first minority government, led by the Scottish National Party.

The first three courses in this section consider issues of nationalism, political devolution and the role of nation-regions in the European Union. The final two courses consider social issues such as geographical identity and poverty in Scotland.

 


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5.5 Science in the Scottish Enlightenment

This course is concerned with science in Scotland, one of the most dynamic centres of Enlightenment thinking. Writers speak of the mid-eighteenth century as Scotland's ‘Golden Age’. In order to get a flavour of this age, it is necessary to take a very broad view of what we mean by ‘science’. Staying within the boundaries recognised by modern science faculties misses most of what is distinctive about eighteenth-century Scotland. The interconnections and cross-fertilisation between disc
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4.2 John Napier

For many years, John Napier (1550–1617) spent his leisure time devising means for making arithmetical calculations easier. Just why a Scots laird at the turn of the seventeenth century should have thus devoted the energies left over from the management of his estates remains a puzzle. Up to the publication of his description of logarithms in 1614, three years before his death, Napier was best known to the world for his Protestant religious treatise A plaine discovery of the whole Revelat
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3.7 Finding information in science and nature

This course will help you to identify and use information in Science and Nature, whether for your work, study or personal purposes. Experiment with some of the key resources in this subject area, and learn about the skills which will enable you to plan searches for information, so you can find what you are looking for more easily. Discover the meaning of information quality, and learn how to evaluate the information you come across. You will also be introduced to the many different ways of or
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3.4 Forth Road Bridge

This course focuses on the Forth Road Bridge that connects Edinburgh with Fife. It is a suspension bridge and continues to face a number of problems regarding its deteriorating condition. A short video illustrates some of the major structural issues facing the bridge as well as examining some of the proposed changes to the use of the bridge to help increase its lifespan.

Edinburgh reaches over the Firth of Forth with two great bridges – the photogenic Victorian Forth Rail Bridge and t
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3.1 Overview

This section of OpenLearn Scotland introduces learners to both ancient and modern Scotland, from the geological history of the Scottish Highlands right up to the creation of the semiconductor transistor by two Scottish computer engineers and the global dimension of the Scottish oil industry.

A further two courses in this section focus on famous bridges in Scotland: the first is about the Tay Bridge and the legacy of its failure on bridge building ever since; the second is about the envi
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References

Bem, S.L. (1989) ‘Genital knowledge and gender constancy in pre-school children’, Child Development, vol.60, pp. 649–62.
Beresford, P. and Croft, S. (1995) ‘It's our problem too! Challenging the exclusion of poor people form poverty discourse’, Critical Social Policy, 44–5, pp. 75–95.
Dean, H. (1992) ‘Poverty discourses and the disempowerment of t
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2.1 The development of gender identity

In this section we are going to look at where we come from in terms of childhood experience and the development of gender identities in childhood. Gender identity involves the construction and use of gender categories. Children's gender categories are at first rather simplistic; but, as we shall see, children refine their categories so that they become more reliable and useful for their social lives. Studying the development of gender identity in children reveals that this is a story of a sea
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1.1.1 Summary

Identity involves:

  • a link between the personal and the social;

  • some active engagement by those who take up identities;

  • being the same as some people and different from others, as indicated by symbols and representations;

  • a tension between how much control I have in constructing my identities and how much control or constraint is exercised over me.


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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to
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2.1 Photographs as documentary evidence

As the discussion of context makes clear, we can begin to ask many questions about the role that images may play in the social sciences. Photographs are documents and like other documentary records they are a physical trace of an actual event. However, as with all documentary evidence, their meaning is not fixed. Other examples of documents used by the social sciences can demonstrate this point.

Documentary evidence can come from official records such as a marriage certificate, a census
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Acknowledgements

This free course is an adapted extract from the course DD305 Personal lives and social policy, which is currently out of presentation.

The material acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) This content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCom
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7.2 The importance of the market and the state: neo-liberalism and neo-Marxism

To begin with neo-liberalism, it is a key premise that the market is the primary means of coordinating economic activity, including the allocation of people to jobs. This assumes that rational actors make judgements about their earnings prospects to decide their best options – training to improve employability, as in Mandy's case, or accepting subsistence-level earnings, as Tamarla Owens did. To neo-liberals, both Mandy and Tamarla Owens would have used information they gleaned in their eve
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4.2 Neo-liberal interpretations of welfare to work

Neo-liberalism begins from an emphasis on the free market, individual freedom and responsibility. Neo-liberal approaches use the ‘less eligibility’ principle. Welfare is thought to distort ‘free’ markets, because it either removes incentives to work, or drives up entry-level pay to rates that are not economical for employers. Neo-liberals tend to advocate what Peck (2001) terms the ‘hard’ Labour Force Attachment model of working for welfare, which places claimants directly
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • outline the ways in which the relations between work and welfare are made and remade in different places and at different times

  • explain how these changing relations contribute to constituting welfare subjects

  • describe how welfare provision that is connected to work affects the lives of different welfare subjects in different and unequal ways

  • assess the relative influences and effects
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