Just now I said quite confidently that you already know a lot about the subjects that make up the arts and humanities even if you have not studied them before. But how can I be so sure? What makes me certain is that, like everyone else, you were born into a human culture. As you were growing up within that culture you were hearing and seeing all the things the people around you were busy saying, doing and making. And you were learning to think and understand, do, say and make similar kinds of
Author(s): The Open University

Charts, graphs and tables are all very helpful ways of representing a set of data. However, they are not the only ways of passing on information about data. This section looks at how you can analyse a set of data to summarise the given information as briefly and simply as possible.

Essentially, there are two features of a set of data that enable summarising: the average and the spread. This section starts by looking at what is meant by â€˜averageâ€™. If you have already studied Worki
Author(s): The Open University

4.7 Proportion

We can use a number of different ways to indicate change â€“ fractions, decimals, and percentages tend to be the ones with which many of us are familiar.

## Activity 11

Which of these represents the greater proporti
Author(s): The Open University

Tables are used as a way of describing what you are talking about in a structured format. They tend to be used to present figures, either as a summary or as a starting point for discussion. Tables are also probably the most common way of presenting data in educational courses.

Tables have always been compiled by someone. In doing so, the compiler may have selected data and they will have chosen a particular format, either of which may influence the reader. You need to be aware of the co
Author(s): The Open University

Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

• reflect on existing skills and mathematical history, set up strategies to cope with mathematics and assess which areas need improving

• understand the following mathematical concepts, through instruction, worked examples and practice activities: reflecting on mathematics; reading articles for mathematical information; making sense of data; interpreting graphs and charts

• draw on a technical glossary, p
Author(s): The Open University

Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this course:

Course image: Sebastien Wiertz in Flickr made available under Creati
Author(s): The Open University

1.3.1 What evidence are we reading?

Social scientists use particular methods to gather qualitative evidence, from observation to interview, but they also use autobiographical accounts, journalism, and other documentary material to flesh out and add meaning to statistics.

As with reading numbers, reading textual evidence requires us to practise, to set time aside to learn how to do it, and to understand the conventions of writing which operate in the different forms of writing we encounter. One of the main pr
Author(s): The Open University

1.3 Psychology has social impact

The relevance of psychology to everyday concerns, and the ease with which it can be popularised and used, mean that psychological knowledge â€“ some of it dubious, some of it accurate â€“ is continually absorbed into culture and often incorporated into the very language we use. Examples of psychological concepts that have entered popular discourse include the notion that we are predisposed, both through evolution and through the functioning of our brains and nervous systems, to behave in cert
Author(s): The Open University

1.1 Psychology in everyday life

Psychological ideas are popular in everyday life because the subject matter of psychology is people and, hence, ourselves. Even if you have never studied any psychology before, it is likely that you will have encountered psychological ideas in the media or in discussions with other people. Psychological research findings and their practical and professional application are regularly in the newspapers, on television, radio, and on the Internet. For example, the possible evolutionary origins of
Author(s): The Open University

Introduction

The key message of this course is that different psychologists focus on different aspects of human behaviour in different ways. Take the topic of learning, some psychologists will study what happens in our brain when we learn, while others will consider how we learn within a social context. This course will first highlight how psychology is now a very visible part of everyday life and then explore its diverse roots in medicine, philosophy, biology, psychoanalysis a
Author(s): The Open University

References

Armstrong, N., & Welsman, J. (1997) Young people and physical activity, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Department for Education and Employment & Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (1999) The National Curriculum for Physical Education, London, QCA.
Department of Health (2004) Chief Medical Officer, At least five a week: Evidence on the impact of physical
Author(s): The Open University

1.1 Creating creativity

Read the poem below, â€˜The Hundred Languages of Childrenâ€™ by Loris Malaguzzi (translated from the Italian by Lella Gandini). Consider how the school curriculum and environment may or may not encourage creativity in children. Do you agree or disagree with the statements expressed in the poem? Note down your thoughts or the thoughts of your group so you can review them as you continue to work through this unit and engage with some of the debates on creativity.

Author(s): The Open University

Acknowledgements

This unit was prepared for TeachandLearn.net by John Morgan. John works at Bristol University where he teaches on the geography PGCE course. Before that he taught geography in schools and colleges. He is the co-author of Essential AS Geography (2000) Nelson Thornes and Teaching to Learn Geography (forthcoming) RoutledgeFalmer.

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see (see Author(s): The Open University

Advanced French: At the science museum in Paris
Using the topic of science and technology in France, this free course, Advanced French: At the science museum in Paris, will show you how to structure arguments, write a summary, use the subjunctive, report numbers and express wishes in French. First published on Thu, 01 Nov 2018 as Author(s): Creator not set

How to learn a language
Learn about the concepts and skills required to learn languages successfully. This free course, How to learn a language, introduces the skills and strategies for language learning, setting realistic goals when learning languages and keeping motivated, practise speaking skills and vocabulary learning strategies. It will enable you to evaluate resources and create a virtual immersion environment.Author(s): Fernando Rosell-Aguilar

Do you want to relocate to the UK? This free course, Business English: Making decisions, will help you with the language difficulties that can arise while providing assistance with the practicalities of the decision-making processes involved and the consultation that is necessary to ensure employees are kept informed. First published on Tue, 23 Oct 2018 a
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Conclusion

Once we start to look at naturally occurring language we see that there is systematic variation in the choices people make. These choices relate to both the meaning and the context of the communication. Specifically we have looked at differences in mode between grammar in speech, especially conversation, and in writing.

You may already be familiar with the idea of variation within a language. For example, there are different varieties of English used in different parts of the world. Ind
Author(s): The Open University

3.3 Features of speech: dialogue

In Section 3.2, Texts 1 and 2 were both monologues, that is, one person speaking or writing. Speech is more often a dialogue, a communication between two or more speakers and this influences the grammar choices made. We can see this in the dialogue transcribed below.

Author(s): The Open University

2.2 Using specific or general questions

Notice the difference between closed questions and open questions.

Closed questions

These questions are very specific and the answers give precise information.

• Are there sites available?

• Yes.

• Has it got air conditioning?

• No.

• Where is Preston?

• In the north-west of England.

• What's the population?

• 128,000.

• Author(s): The Open University

Stating desirable conditions

This structure is used to show conditions which are desirable.

Should + infinitive

The site should be within one hour of an international airport.

Author(s): The Open University