Figure 2 shows a picture of a ruler. The major units are marked in centimetres (1 to 11 cm), whilst the intervals between the centimetres have each been split into ten equal, smaller units. These minor units are therefore tenths of a centimetre, commonly known as â€˜millimetresâ€™. (There are 10 millimetres in 1 centimetre
Author(s): The Open University

Simple rules for dealing with orders of magnitude and decimal points in decimal numbers: values ten times bigger than the order of magnitude you are looking at go to the left, ten times smaller go to the right, and less than 1 to the right of the decimal point.

Note: in many European countries, a comma is used instead of a decimal point. For instance in France and Germany two and a half (in other words 2.5) can be written as 2,5. This is important to bear in mind, for example, if
Author(s): The Open University

Suppose you have less than one of any particular unit: how would you represent that using the decimal system?

Well, we've already seen that decimal numbers rely on a positional system, in which values get smaller by factors of ten as you read from left to right. If we continue doing this, then the number to the right of a single unit represents tenths of that unit. A decimal point is then used to mark the boundary between the whole units and tenths of that unit.

For instanc
Author(s): The Open University

Many different systems for writing numbers have been developed over the history of humankind.

The easiest way of counting small numbers is to use your fingers, and for this reason many numerical systems, such as the decimal system, are based around the number ten. But what happens when you run out of fingers to count on?

Numbering systems get round this problem by using a system of scale in which many small units are represented by a single larger unit, and many of these la
Author(s): The Open University

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

• understand the decimal system of numbering (hundreds, tens, units);

• explain the best way to write down decimal numbers and associated units of measurement in the healthcare workplace, in a manner that avoids confusion;

• understand the concepts of discrete and continuous variables and the best types of graphs used to represent these data;

• analyse, construct and extract information from grap
Author(s): The Open University

This sample of S110 material is taken from Module 2, entitled Using numbers and handling data. As you read the material, bear in mind that it is taken from a work-based course, designed for those who are employed in the health services, perhaps as a paramedic or as operating theatre staff. If you were a student on the course, you would have an OU tutor to help you, plus a work-based mentor supplied by the employer â€“ normally the NHS. The aim is to use the workplace as a teaching aren
Author(s): The Open University

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions). This content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

## Author(s): The Open UniversityLicense informationRelated contentExcept for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

Now you have completed this unit, try the following questions to test your understanding of this material.

## Question 19

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

• summarise and identify descriptions of the principal features of the main lithotectonic units of the British Isles, namely the Precambrian Basement, the Caledonian Orogenic Belt, the Variscan Orogenic Belt, the Older Cover and the Younger Cover;

• identify any of the main terranes making up the British Isles on the basis of a description of its age, main rock types, dominant structures, and plate tectonic setting.

Author(s): The Open University

The following material acknowledged below is Proprietary and used under licence and not subject to Creative Commons licence (see terms and conditions).

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission:

## Text

Rothery, David A., Teach Yourself Planets, Chapter 6, pp. 66â€“75, Hodder Education, 2000, 2003. Copyright Â© David Rothery.

## Figures

Figures from
Author(s): The Open University

Now try to answer the following questions, to remind you of some of the things you have learned and test your understanding of them.

## Question 1

Most of the usable water is derived from the 1.1 Ã— 105 km3 that falls over the land surface each year as rain, snow, sleet or hail. The collective term for all of these sources of water is precipitation. At this point, you will consider the size of the drops of water that make up clouds or rain (Figure 5).

Author(s): The Open University

Think again about the value for the total volume of water stored on Earth: 1460 000 000 km3.

When dealing with large numbers such as one thousand four hundred and sixty million (1460 000 000), it is tedious to write the number in words or to keep writing all of those zeros. Worse still, it is very easy to lose some of the zeros or add extra ones by mistake. Fortunately, large numbers can be referred to without having to write out all of the zeros. The powers of ten not
Author(s): The Open University

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

• recognise definitions and applications of each of the terms printed in bold in the text;

• understand and apply basic grammatical terminology;

• describe briefly the different types of sounds used in speech in both acoustic and articulatory terms;

• outline the key features of human language as compared to the vocalisations of other species;

• describe the complex psychologi
Author(s): The Open University

The document attached below includes the seventh section of Mountain building in Scotland. In this section, you will find the following subsections:

• 7.1 Introduction

• 7.2 Mid-Ordovician to Silurian sedimentation in the Midland Valley Terrane

• 7.2.1 Ordivician sedimentation

• 7.2.2 Silurian sedimentiation

• 7.2.3 Summary of Section 7.2

• 7
Author(s): The Open University

Some findings indicate that, for moderate loudness levels, humans can detect a frequency change of about 1 to 3 Hz for frequencies up to about 1000 Hz. Figure 37 shows a plot of the smallest frequency difference for which two tones can be discriminated for a number of reference tones. You can see from the figure that up to about 1000 Hz, the D
Author(s): The Open University

When Newton wrote about â€˜The System of the Worldâ€™ in Part 3 of Principia, the only forces he could discuss in any detail were the contact forces that arose when one object touched another, and gravity, which acted at a distance. Even so, Newton thought that there were other forces at work in the world, and hoped they might eventually be brought within his overall scheme just as gravity had been. In fact, Newton wrote:

Author(s): The Open University

In Section 3.3 the point was made that many physiologists consider that desert birds are successful because of their avian physiology, not because of any specific adaptations. While Williams and Tieleman's research on hoopoe larks demonstrated that desert species are capable of flexibility in metabolic rate and evaporative water loss, it suggested that adaptation is important too. The selective advantages of lowered BMR and TEWL for desert birds include reduced energy demand, and lower produc
Author(s): The Open University

Although a person can survive for several weeks without food, without fluids, someone can survive for only a few days. A loss of water equivalent to just 1% of body weight is enough to make someone feel thirsty and to have an effect on ability to concentrate. Such a loss has been shown in some studies in schools to result in a 10% decrease in the mental performance of children. A 4% loss results in dizziness and reduced muscle power. By the time there is a 6% loss, the heart is racing and swe
Author(s): The Open University

## Activity 14

What is the condition that results from vitamin C deficiency and what are its symptoms?