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7.1 A review

All the evidence you have looked at so far suggests that historians are right to see a ‘medicalisation’ of society in the sense that when ill, people were more likely to consult a qualified medical practitioner in 1930 than they had been in 1880. The extension of medical services – combined with the increase in chronic complaints – meant that working-class patients in particular had much greater contact with general practitioners, health visitors and nurses. However, it is also clear
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • describe the Scottish contributions to the history of medical thinking and practice in the nineteenth century;

  • give examples of many medical advances that were influenced by wider social, economic, political and cultural contexts;

  • understand how developments in medical education permitted women to qualify and practise as doctors;

  • appreciate that the laboratory had a limited impact on medi
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2.4.5 Philosophy

This is yet another essentially literary source, so we can be brief. In fact, as in the case of history, its distinction from literature is anything but cut and dried. The only reason we mention it here separately is because we want to make it explicit that almost everything we have said for literature holds for philosophy too. Many varieties of philosophy aim to find absolute truths. In this respect, philosophy is less concerned with particular periods and places than is, for instance, histo
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Acknowledgements

This unit was written by Dr Nigel Warburton

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Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to repro
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7.3 Masks and disguises

Masks were used in classical Greek theatre to exaggerate expressions so that they could be seen in the large open-air amphitheatres. Most of us are familiar with the famous stereotypes for tragedy and comedy, but masks were also identified with particular types, whether comic or tragic, such as old man, or king, courtesan or queen. Masks have not been part of the dramatic conventions in Britain, but have been used to reflect social conventions of the Restoration period. The connotations of
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Introduction

This unit looks at the management of local knowledge-generating practices. You will explore the processes that link practices to global contexts and learn to identify the key dimensions of globalisation and explore the implications for knowing how to ‘do things’ in a variety of contexts. You will go on to compare the approaches to managing and organising, based on universally applicable principles, with context-specific rationalities and look at how viable interpretations of reality might
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4.3.2 Operational excellence

Companies that pursue this [value discipline] are not primarily product or service innovators, nor do they cultivate a deep one-to-one relationship with their customers. Instead, operationally excellent companies provide middle-of-the-market products at the best price with the least inconvenience. Their proposition to customers is simple: low price and hassle-free service.

(Treacy and Wiersema, 1996)


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1 Overview

This unit begins with some explanations of culture and discussion of how to distinguish between national and organisational culture. Reading what some well-known writers on organisational and national culture have to say will help you recognise some of the main dimensions of culture and reinforces that all of us, including organisations, construct different views of the world as a result of cultural influences. Thus culture plays a key role in the ways in which organisations perceive the envi
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3.6.1 Saying thank you and acknowledging current contribution

Probably the single most important way of retaining people's support and goodwill is to say thank you promptly and to demonstrate that you have noted and valued whatever it is they have contributed. If you do not have the systems to guarantee that supporters are thanked appropriately, then you cannot seriously expect to move anyone anywhere – be it up a pyramid, into a kite or round a matrix.


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3.5 Building the relationship: developing your donors

Donor development is all about ensuring that you and your donors get the most you can from your relationship in ways which are mutually agreeable and beneficial. It is the process by which, from their very first contact onwards, you can encourage and enable donors and supporters to make the maximum contribution they both desire and are capable of.

Effective donor and supporter development depends hugely on your capacity to keep an accurate record of each donor's unique involvement with
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4.2 Stakeholder analysis

Figure 3 illustrates the range of stakeholders who could have an interest in health-related community social marketing programmes.

Introduction

The default learning path in this unit takes a problem-based approach to learning about project management. You work through a realistically complex and messy example of project management and engage in a series of tasks associated with the case-study materials. At each stage of the case study you have access to project management resources which describe useful approaches to project management and introduce useful frameworks and tools. However, these are provided as an aid to your learning n
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Unit Image

Author: Ramy Majouji

All other materials included in this unit are derived from content originated at the Open University.


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1.6 Keeping up-to-date

How familiar are you with the following different ways of keeping up to date with information; alerts, mailing lists, newsgroups, blogs, RSS, professional bodies and societies?

  • 5 – Very familiar

  • 4 – Familiar

  • 3 – Fairly familiar

  • 2 – Not very familiar

  • 1 – Not familiar at all


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7.2.1 Labelling behaviour

Signalling that you are about to suggest a solution to a problem or to ask an important question is one way of drawing attention to this and puts pressure on the person or persons at whom your signal is directed to respond.


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2 What's so great about innovation?

So far we have suggested that innovation is a positive concept and, it appears, the rate of innovation continues to accelerate, led mostly by technology. The process is an example of positive feedback, in which the change is self-reinforcing: the development of technology itself increases the capacity for technological innovation, and raises the expectation of consumers for further innovation. While there seems little reason why this process of accelerating technological change should
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8.7 Fuel poverty in Scotland

Fuel poverty is a critical issue facing people on very low incomes, particularly in countries like Scotland, with its severe winters. Winter deaths are disproportionately high when compared with other parts of Britain. This unit aims to give you an understanding of what poverty is like, and how adequate heating can become a matter of life and death.

To access this material click on the unit link below. It leads to a separate OpenLearn unit and will open in a new window.

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5 Further resources

For an overview of demographic change, Michael Anderson's chapter in the Cambridge Social History of Britain (1983) provides a nuanced overview of what historical demography can offer. John Gillis' A World of Their Own Making (1996) is a fascinating account of the changes in family rituals and meanings in Western societies since the medieval period. Lesley Hall's Sex, Gender and Social Change in Britain since 1880 (2000) provides a good introduction to histories of sexual
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4 Conclusion

In Section 3 we have looked at marriage, parenthood, sexuality, birth control and population policy in the period of fertility decline in Britain between 1860 and 1930. We can trace the two-way processes by which on the one hand, people drew on formations of social policy when shaping the place that fertility played in their li
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6 Questions for review and discussion

Question 1

Complete the following sentences by selecting the correct word or phrase from the list below to fill in the spaces:

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