Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • identify some of the important characteristics of maps in relation to their value to social science;

  • recognise and give examples of how maps can influence our “view” of the world;

  • describe the relationship between data and space as represented on a map.


Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

7.2 Reorganizing notes

The technique of re-reading completed notes and supplementing them with comments and queries is a useful way of processing ideas. Another way of processing ideas is to reorganize notes around a set of questions or thematic headings. This is particularly useful for those notes that you will be drawing upon for planning and writing assignments. They can be reworked and key concepts and ideas can thus be applied to different types of questions and issues.

Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

1.2 Disentangling sounds

If you are still feeling aggrieved about the shortcomings of evolution, then you might take heart from the remarkable way in which the auditory system has evolved so as to avoid a serious potential problem. Unlike our eyes, our ears cannot be directed so as to avoid registering material that we wish to ignore; whatever sounds are present in the environment, we must inevitably be exposed to them. In a busy setting such as a party we are swamped by simultaneous sounds – people in different pa
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

1.6.5 RSS

RSS (‘Really Simple Syndication’ or ‘Rich Site Summary’) newsfeeds supply headlines, links, and article summaries from various websites. By using RSS ‘feedreader’ software you can gather together a range of feeds and read them in one place: they come to you, rather than you having to go out and look for breaking news. The range of RSS feeds on offer is growing daily. There is probably a feed to cover all aspects of your life where you might need the latest information, and you may
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

1.5.8 Bibliographic software

If you are considering taking your studies further you might like to consider using bibliographic software. Bibliographic software can be used to sort references, annotate them, manage quotations or create reading lists.

There are several software packages on the market. Some are listed below.

Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Author details

Sue Cowley is an experienced teacher and subject co-ordinator, who has tau
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

1 Teaching and behaviour

The quality of our teaching inevitably has an impact on the behaviour of our students: a student who is busy learning is far less likely to think about misbehaving. Using a range of strategies, positive approaches and rewards will have a positive impact on behaviour on a day-to-day basis. However, one of the key factors in getting sustained good behaviour is ensuring that your students are fully engaged with the work that they are doing.

There are many factors that can contribute to mis
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

1.3.11 Choosing the right tool for the job

Before searching it is always a good idea to check what the source you have chosen covers to make sure it will unearth information that matches your search need (you will notice that all the resources we’ve covered in this guide have short descriptions to enable you to decide which to use). Some of the decision makers, depending on the context of your search might be:

  • Does it have full text?

  • Does it cover the right subject?


    Author(s): The Open University

    License information
    Related content

    Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

How Can We Improve UK Drug and Alcohol Policy? [Audio]
Speaker(s): Professor David Nutt | David Nutt will reflect on his ten years’ experience on the government’s Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs until 2010, and present new analyses comparing the harms of drugs and alcohol using more sophisticated methodology. David Nutt is Edmond J Safra Professor of Neuropsychology at Imperial College London. He was chair of the ACMD until 2010 and is now chair of the Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs.
Author(s): No creator set

License information
Related content

Drawing with water

Simple and beautiful: the delicate art of drawing with water - making the Art for Alan's War.


Author(s): samosama

License information
Related content

Rights not set

1.4 TSEs and non-human animals

Several TSEs of non-human animals were also known before the recognition of BSE and others have come to light subsequently. The most significant of the former is scrapie, a disease of sheep that has been known for over 200 years. Its symptoms include irritability, excitability, restlessness, scratching, biting, rubbing of the skin (hence its name), loss of wool, weight loss, weakness of the hindquarters and sometimes impaired vision. Some breeds are relatively resistant to the disease (e.g. S
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

5 Designer babies?

A character under genetic influence where the distinction between treatment and enhancement is hard to draw is height. Treatment of short stature – with human growth hormone made in genetically manipulated bacteria – has already given rise to controversy about how short a child needs to be for treatment to count as meeting a medical need. That is, how tall is tall enough?

As we identify genes that have effects on many other human characters, from appearance to, perhaps, intelligence
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

5.3.3 Ring-tailed lemurs

LoM p. 239 describes the life and habits of the ring-tailed lemur, drawing attention to what are commonly called their ‘stink-fights’ – a further example of the importance of smell in lemur society. But here the habit is prevalent in a species that is active by day and can spend as much as 40 per cent of its waking time on the ground. In fact, these animals seem equally at home on the ground and in the trees. Over time, some populations in Madagascar have become more ground-based than o
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

2.4 Sources of errors

The following is a list of common problems that can lead to medication errors. They fall into three broad categories according to where they occur in the sequence from a drug being prescribed to it being administered to a patient. As you can see, the same types of mistake can occur in each category. Those errors that involve maths are highlighted in italics:

Prescription errors

  • Wrong drug prescribed (contraindicated, or allergy, o
    Author(s): The Open University

    License information
    Related content

    Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

2.2.2 Precision

Measuring the same sample should give the same result every time if the equipment is precise. In practice, the information displayed by a measuring device can depend on several factors (such as temperature and humidity) and can drift slightly over time. Nevertheless, during the time it takes to complete a measurement sequence, all measurements ought to remain within a specified, small margin of error, often marked on the equipment. We will see later on, in Author(s): The Open University

1.10 Subtraction of decimal numbers

Subtraction of numbers can be used to answer questions such as ‘what's the difference between two values?’ or ‘if something has decreased by a certain amount, what's its new value?’ Subtraction can also be thought of as undoing the process of addition. For instance, instead of saying ‘£10 take away £7.85 leaves how much?’ you could say, ‘what do I have to add to £7.85 to get back to £10?’

Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

1.8.1 Study Note 4

If you have difficulty with this section, you might find it helpful to investigate some of the Government schemes aimed at improving maths skills. More information about such schemes can be found at http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/EducationAndLearning/AdultLearning/ImprovingYourSkills/index.htm (accessed 5 March 2008).

Box 3: The basics
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

1.6.3 Litres and kilograms

The two physical units of measurement that you will probably come across most often in your workplace concern volumes of liquids and weight measurements. It's important to get a feeling for what various factors of ten look like, so that you can spot when there seems to be a mistake in a value that you've calculated or have been given by someone else.

The litre is the main unit of measurement for liquid volumes (written as liter in America), but what does a litre of fluid look like? What
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

1.6.1 Getting comfortable with factors of ten

Moving a decimal point by one place changes the value of the number by a factor of ten. For instance, to multiply a value by ten you can just move the decimal point one place to the right:

Notice that if the starting number doesn't have a decimal point shown we can place
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share