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3.3 Procedure by which Bills become law

In order to become an Act of Parliament a Bill will have to be passed by both the House of Commons and the House of Lords. A Bill may start in either the House of Commons or the House of Lords, with the exception of Finance Bills which always start in the House of Commons. A Finance Bill is introduced by the Government shortly after the Budget to bring the Government's tax proposals into law.

Before a Bill can become an Act of Parliament it must undergo a number of stages.


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3.2 Preparing and drafting a Bill

The period of preparation of a Bill allows time to scrutinise evidence on the policies underlying the Bill, and to consider whether the Bill can be improved before it is introduced. Proper preparation of a Bill should lead to better-informed debate when it is introduced, and may save time by identifying problems at an early stage. This period of pre-legislative scrutiny should allow mature consideration and so help to avoid introducing laws that are unworkable.

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2.10 Summary of Part A

In Part A we have examined the various ways in which Acts of Parliament may originate:

  1. Party manifestos

  2. National emergency, crisis or new development

  3. Royal Commissions

  4. The Law Commission

  5. Private Members' Bills.


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2.9 (v) Private Members' Bills

Individual Members of Parliament have the power to introduce their own legislation known as a Private Members' Bill. An example of a successful Private Members' Bill which became law is the Marriage Act 1994 introduced by Gyles Brandreth who was MP for Chester at the time. This Act allows people to marry in any registered place, not just a Register Office or religious building. Private Members' Bills may be the result of an MP being approached for support for a proposal put forward by particu
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2.8 (iv) The Law Commission

Another source of legislation is the recommendations of the Law Commission. The Law Commission was created in 1965 in order to review and make recommendations about any areas of the law which the Commission felt to be in need of reform. The Law Commission is responsible for keeping all the law under review with a view to its development and reform. This is not the only body charged with proposing changes to the law, there is also the Law Reform Committee and the Criminal Law Revision Committe
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5 Conclusion

Social work and law are both contested concepts, open to a range of possible meanings, depending on their context and the source of their definition. An understanding of these competing meanings is essential to good professional practice and provides a foundation for examining the relationship between social work and the law which is central to this unit. The relationship between social work and the law is subject to change, as the organisation and delivery of social care services attempts to
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3.7 The growth of the ECHR

The achievements of the ECHR are many. It continues to promote human rights and democracy across Europe, it has established jurisprudence in human rights and it has made significant contributions to the continued peace and stability of Europe. Recent reforms mean that the right of individual petition is now guaranteed, so individuals are afforded protection from the power of the state. The number of HCPs has expanded to 46 and access to the protection of the ECHR and the ECtHR is available to
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7.3 Summary of Part F

The constitutional dimension of the EU has been continuously developing. It is influenced by changes both in the membership of the EU and by a desire to develop and strengthen the EU. Part of this development is reflected in the negotiations towards the adoption of a new EU constitution. This part of the unit has given you the opportunity to appreciate the complexity of this process. Whether the proposed new EU constitution merely consolidates existing legal provisions or whether it brings ab
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4.2.9 European Community reports

Although European cases may appear in the reports considered above, there are two specialist reports relating to EU cases.

  • European Court Reports (ECR)

    These are the official reports produced by the European Court of Justice. As such, they are produced in all the official languages of the Community and consequently suffer from delay in reporting.

  • Common Market Law Reports (CMLR)

    These are unofficial reports published wee
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3.6 Additional practice

Here is a mixed bag of exercises, in case you feel that you need more practice. Do the exercises which you feel will help you.


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3.5.1 Try some yourself

1 Give the appropriate rounding for each of the values below:

  • (a) Carpet floor area = 26.456 sq metres

  • (b) Interest earned = £109.876 5439

  • (c) Bill for £84.90 shared by
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1.3.6 Weighted mean

The concise formula that you have just used is useful in itself for calculating a mean when you are given data in frequency form. But, even more useful, it can be extended, leading to the idea of a weighted mean, that has many applications, as you will see.

Example 5: Assignment scores


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1.2.3: A typical shopping basket

This subsection discusses using a typical basket of goods to analyse price changes over time. However, what is meant by ‘typical’?

Think back to the last time you went shopping. What did you buy? The electric light bulbs that you have just stocked up on are unlikely to be in your shopping basket next week, whereas milk may well be there every week. And there may be items—a new toothbrush for example—that you buy from time to time, but not this week.

To monitor price change
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Introduction

This Unit looks at a wide variety of ways of comparing prices and the construction of a price index. You will look at the Retail Price Index (RPI) and the Consumer Price Index (CPI), indices used by the UK Government to calculate the percentage by which prices in general have risen over any given period. You will also look at the important statistical and mathematical ideas that contribute to the construction of a price index.

In order to complete this Unit you will need to have obta
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6.5.1 Another ‘making a lawn’ solution

Example 18 Making a lawn

Suppose you have some friends who are planning to put a new lawn in their garden. The lawn is to be 12 m by 14 m and they have a choice of either laying turf or sowing grass seed. You have been asked to help them decide between the two.

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6.3 Solving the riddle of St Ives

Write out your own solution to the following problem.

Example 17: St Ives

As I was going to St Ives

I met a man with seven wives.

Each wife had seven sacks.

Each sack had seven cats.

Each cat had seven kits.

Kits,
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4.2 A better solution

Here is an improved solution which shows working.

Example 13

Suppose you plan to redecorate your bathroom. The end wall has the following shape, with dimensions as shown on the diagram. The quality of the plasterwork is not good and you are considering tiling the wall.

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3.3.1 Try some yourself

1 If tomatoes cost 75 pence per kg, how much would 1.45 kg cost in pounds (£)?

Answer

The formula is

cost of tomatoes = (price per kilogram) × (number of k
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3.2 Using formulas

Formulas are important because they describe general relationships, rather than specific numerical ones. For example, the tins of paint formula applies to every wall. To use such a formula you need to substitute specific values for the general terms, as the following examples show.

Example 8

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2.6.1 Arithmetical symbols

You will have already met the symbols for the basic arithmetical operations, which are +, −, × and ÷, but you may not have met some of the alternative ways of writing × and ÷.

To recap, the main symbols for arithmetical operations are:

There are other alternati
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