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3.1 Clips 1 to 3

Clip 1

This first clip introduces the issue of fuel poverty.

2.1.3 Angela Yih

Figure 2
Angela Yih

Angela Yih was working for Age Concern Scotland,
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • give examples of poverty in terms of low income and the effects it has on the lives of the poor.


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References

Anderson, I., Kemp, P. and Quilgars, D. (1993) Single Homeless People, London, HMSO.
Fitzpatrick, S. and Clapham, D. (1999) 'Homelessness and young people' in Huston, S. and Clapham, D. (eds), Homelessness: Public policies and private troubles, London, Cassell, pp. 173–90.

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Conclusion

This free course provided an introduction to studying Health and Social Care. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner.


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7 Audio clip 4: Paul

Paul was 30 years old when he was interviewed. He had been in and out of homelessness for most of his adult life, but had become a volunteer with the Cyrenians. He was living in a shared house with some other volunteers.

Paul spent much of his childhood in a caravan in Happy Valley, near the sea, with his parents, brothers and sisters. At 21, when he was living with his girlfriend and her parents, his daughter was born. When she was two months old, they were kicked out, and Paul went to
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6 Audio clip 3: Ernest

At the time of the interview, Ernest was 28 years old. He was living in the Cyrenians' hostel, where he had been for some time. He was trying to find employment, and was contemplating a move to independent living. However, he felt somewhat frightened at the prospect of leaving the security of the hostel, which he likened to a family.

Ernest is from Kenya. He first came to Britain, and Swansea, as a student, eight years before the interview. You will hear about the difficulties he faced
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1 The Swansea Cyrenians

In this course, you will hear from four people who have been helped by a secular voluntary organisation offering support and assistance to the homeless.

The Swansea Cyrenians is one of several organisations that are in touch with homeless people in Swansea. Since 1973, it has been helping some of the most vulnerable people in society, including those who have suffered from homelessness. At the time of the recordings, in 1999, the organisation was running a number of schemes to he
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • understand how some of the needs of homeless people can be met.


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References

Airhihenbuwa, C.O. (1995) Health and Culture: Beyond the Western paradigm, London, Sage.
Antonovsky, A. (1984) ‘The sense of coherence as a determinant of health’, in Matarazzo, J.D. (ed.) Behavioural Health, New York, Wiley, pp. 114–29.
Antonovsky, A. (1987) Unravelling the Mystery of Health: How people manage stress and stay well, California, Josse
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7 Moving to a positive paradigm

Aaron Antonovsky (1984) has called the emphasis on illness and disease the pathogenic paradigm and has stated that this disease-focused paradigm has dominated our healthcare system. He claims that there are five important consequences of this domination:

  1. ‘We have come to think dichotomously about people, classifying them as either healthy or diseased’ (p. 115). Those categorised as ‘healthy’ are normal, those categorised as non-healthy or ‘di
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5 Quality of life

‘Quality of life’ is beginning to be seen as significant by health policy makers. But this raises all kinds of problems about evaluating initiatives to promote wellbeing and quality of life.

If health is difficult to define then quality of life is even harder. You will have difficulty finding a tight definition. As George and Bearon state:

On the whole, social scientists have failed to provide consistent
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4.2 People knowledge

Stacey (1994) has made a passionate plea to understand the ‘power of lay knowledge’ which she prefers to call ‘people knowledge’. Stacey claims that two fundamental assumptions underline the importance of listening to lay voices. One is that all people are of equal worth and so their views should be heard. The other is that people are health producers as much as they are health consumers. She maintains that patients do a great deal of hard work, whether it is direct as with labouring
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2.3 Developing a professional social work identity

Empathy

Empathy is a skill that is vital in social work for understanding the experience of service users in order to help them more effectively. This is particularly important for those service users whose experiences are very different from your own. Empathy is one of the basic building blocks that you will need to develop a professional social work identity. Later in this learning guide you w
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3.4 Type

To improve aerobic fitness the ACSM recommends exercise that employs large muscle groups, is rhythmic or dynamic, can be maintained continuously and is aerobic in nature (Garber et al., 2011). This type of exercise results in larger increases in aerobic fitness. Activities that would fit into this category include walking, running, swimming and cycling. This again depends upon the level of the individual and their goals and demands of their activity or sport.

Frequency, intensity, time
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3.1 Frequency

Frequency refers to how often or how frequently someone should exercise. To improve aerobic fitness, the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommends an exercise frequency of three days per week of vigorous exercise or five days of moderate exercise for healthy adults (Garber et al., 2011). The terms ‘vigorous’ and ‘moderate’ will be defined in the next section.

A frequency of 3–5 days per week using a combination of moderate and vigorous exercise is also recommended.
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3 Frequency, intensity, time and type (FITT)

In the previous section the principles of training were considered. When designing an exercise session or programme there are four factors that can be manipulated to adjust the training load – frequency (how often), intensity (how hard), time (how long) and type (what mode), which are commonly referred to by the acronym ‘FITT’.


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2 Principles of training

When designing training sessions or programmes, it is important to consider the principles of training which include the principles of overload, progression, specificity, individual response and reversibility. These principles apply to all components of fitness, not just aerobic fitness,

Overload

In order to increase our fitness, we need to ‘overload’ our body systems. For examp
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1 Exercise prescription fundamentals

You are probably already familiar with the term prescription in a medical context (i.e. a doctor might prescribe a medication). Exercise prescription is the term used to describe the exercise programme that an instructor gives to a participant (i.e. the exercise they prescribe). When prescribing aerobic exercise there are two key areas to consider – the principles of training and ‘FITT’ (frequency, intensity, time and type of exercise). We will look at each of these
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • apply the principles of training to aerobic fitness development

  • consider the appropriate frequency, intensity, time/duration and type of exercise to develop aerobic fitness.


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