Pages 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 11758 result(s) returned

References

West, S. (2000) Your Rights: A guide to money benefits for older people, London, Age Concern England.

Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Unlike Real Insurance, Social Security "Insurance" Creates Greater Risk for the Future

Every time the Social Security trustees issue their annual report, some people notice that the system’s huge unfunded liabilities (currently, a $42.1 trillion cumulative shortfall) are inherently unfair to future Americans. That threatens its status as the “third rail” of politics, which electrocutes anyone who tries to touch it.

So Social Security’s army of defenders go on the attack. And one of their greatest weapons is that the program has been promoted as insurance program
Author(s): No creator set

License information
Related content

Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to choose from o
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Conclusion

This free course provided an introduction to studying Environment & Development. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance, and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner.


Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

7 Of rats and men

The two most successful species of omnivore - humans and the brown (or Norwegian) rat - both arose within mammalian groups that are not particularly omnivorous. Most members of our own family, the primates, are exclusively or predominantly herbivorous. However, chimpanzees do occasionally hunt and eat monkeys and the human species is far from being exclusively vegetarian. Brown rats are rodents and almost all rodents use their continuously growing incisors to feed on seeds, nuts, grass, stems
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

5 Miss Piggy

As the earliest mammals - the insectivores - were specialists, it follows that the omnivore lifestyle must have arisen at some later stage in a group or groups of non-omnivores. In fact, both seed eating and leaf eating arose before omnivory. Twenty million years ago, Dinohyus was undoubtedly a 'specialist' omnivore.

Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

4.2 Licking/grooming-arched back nursing

Rat mothers perform a number behaviours towards their pups: they build a nest for their pups, keep them in it and occasionally lick them and nurse them. (Rat fathers have a parental role too but it is not essential and the experimental set-up is simplified by his absence.) Licking occurs predominantly at the time when the dam arches her back and nurses her young, allowing a composite behaviour of licking/grooming-arched back nursing to be identified and recorded. If licking/grooming-arched ba
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

3.1 Introduction

Formal rules do not just appear from nowhere! In this part we will be exploring how such rules are the product of a process of policy making. As an example, we will be using the Irish Government's policy on banning smoking in the workplace, and the law which arose out of this policy. Part B will also provide you with an opportunity to apply some of the reasoning skills you have been developing by applying your understanding of the Irish law to some factual situations.

One of the most ob
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

4.2.2 The significance of the average energy

The average thermal energy of the atoms in a solid indicates how much they are 'rattling' or vibrating around their mean positions. Since the atoms are close together, virtually touching, and because atoms are almost incompressible, they cannot get much closer. But they can get further apart. So, since thermal energy is manifested in the vibrations of the atoms, bigger vibrations mean that the atoms must spend more time further apart. On average then, there is a tendency for a solid to expand
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

2.1 Introduction

One aspect of micro and nano scale engineering that distinguishes it from many other forms of manufacturing is the way it involves building both the devices themselves and the very materials from which they are made, in one place and at more or less the same time. In general, MEMS are made from thin layers of new material produced, and then shaped in some way, on the surface of a silicon wafer. The devices contain several different materials, and have a three-dimensional structu
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

1.1 Solving problems

It could be said that our species is defined by its irresistible urge to solve problems – it's what makes us human. Strange, then, that the word 'problem' has such negative overtones. I think that the root of this paradox is that the word is used both when we identify a need – the first link in the problem-solving chain – and when we undertake the process of meeting that need. It is the identification of the need and the realisation that it is real and must be met that creates the anxie
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

18.2 Characteristics of the innovation

In one of the standard works in this field, Everett Rogers (2003) identifies five characteristics of an innovation that affect how quickly and to what extent it will sell:

  1. relative advantage

  2. compatibility

  3. complexity

  4. observability

  5. trialability.


Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

4.5 Was the telephone invented in response to a need or because of developments in technology?

As with many truly innovative technologies it's difficult to claim that people were demanding its invention. Most people were satisfied with the existing means of communicating across distances. It took a great deal of imagination to foresee that the ability to speak to others at a distance would eventually replace the telegraph in business and the letter in personal communications. People weren't expressing a need to be able to communicate more rapidly but once the means became available to
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

1.2 Representation and language

Consider some of the many different things we can do with language: express ourselves in metaphor, issue commands, ask questions, fill in crosswords, write shopping lists and diary entries, repeat nursery rhymes by rote, solve logical or arithmetical problems, make promises, tell stories, sign our names, etc. Impressive though it is, this variety in the uses of language is a potential distraction from our main interest, which is in the use of language to represent. It will therefore help if w
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

2.4.2 The visual arts

These are closely related to archaeology. They, too, are things we can look at and touch after all. The difference is very much one of interpretation. Are the Parthenon statues art or archaeology; is an ancient painted pot art or archaeology? In order to avoid such questions, many people use the term ‘material culture’ to cover both. For many purposes, the difference doesn't matter. In fact, it is a good illustration of the advantages of interdisciplinary work, with different kinds of app
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

2.4 Image

In the city of Rome the emperor glorified his relationship with the provinces. Here you will consider how the emperor was exalted in the provinces. It was impossible for the emperor to be seen personally by all his subjects and so methods were employed to publicise his face and name – to overcome geographic distance by making the emperor familiar to his people. Standardised images of the emperor – on statues, busts and coins – were widely copied and placed in prominent public locations.
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

1.2 Aims

The aims of this course are:

  • to explore the processes that link local practices to global contexts;

  • to identify key dimensions of globalisation and explore its implications for knowing how to ‘do things’ in a variety of contexts;

  • to compare approaches to managing and organising, based on universally applicable principles, with context-specific rationalities;

  • to illustrate how viable interpretation
    Author(s): The Open University

    License information
    Related content

    Copyright © 2016 The Open University

5 Conclusion

In a financial context, risk is a synonym for uncertainty – the possibility that the actual outcome will differ from the mean expected outcome. It is therefore a neutral rather than a negative concept. Investors are risk-averse in the sense that they require more return for taking on more risk. Risk itself is measured by the standard deviation of actual returns around the mean expectation. In the real world, investment risk is created by a number of different factors that affect the certain
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

4 Review: misrecognition, disrespect and the politics of fear

A recurring theme in discussions of poverty is the distinction between ‘the poor’ and ‘the non-poor’. Echoing nineteenth-century ideas of the ‘deserving’ and ‘undeserving’ poor, or 1930s notions of ‘problem estates’, such distinctions continue to permeate representations of poor populations today and also often figure prominently in policy.

Binary classifications such as those highlighted in Author(s): The Open University

Pages 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588