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1 Fuel poverty

The audio clips in this unit feature interviews about fuel poverty in Scotland.

Activity

Read through the information about each of the participants, and then listen to the clips in Section 3. As you read, and while you listen, m
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Introduction

In this first unit, you will be hearing and reading about the issues faced by people living in poverty in Britain in 2000. This is intended to give you an understanding of what poverty is like from the perspective of the people themselves, both in terms of the experience of living on a very low income, and some of the effects this has had on their lives. One of the biggest problems facing people living on a very low income is how to afford adequate heating.

A particular aspect of povert
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4 Audio clip 1: John

In this first clip, Julia Johnson, from the Open University, talks to John, who had been sleeping rough in the city and living in an abandoned van in a car park for three weeks.

At the time of the interview, John was 43. He was born in a town near Swansea, but had spent much of his life in institutions. His childhood was spent in a large ‘mental handicap’ hospital, which has now closed. Some years after his discharge, he and his brother were arrested, and subsequently imprisoned for
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3 Audio and activity

Activity 1

In these audio clips, you will hear about the Chinese Welfare Association. At the time of recording, Anna Manway-Watson was its Director, and Lily Sau Han Braid, the Community Development Worker for older people
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8 Summary and key themes

In this unit you have been introduced to a diverse range of ideas about health. To recap, the themes and ideas you have met in this unit are:

  • The diversity of accounts of health. An important theme of this unit is that there is a great diversity in what people mean when they talk of health; sometimes these meanings conflict and sometimes they can coexist but health is a creative and multifaceted concept.

  • The importance of
    Author(s): The Open University

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7 Moving to a positive paradigm

Aaron Antonovsky (1984) has called the emphasis on illness and disease the pathogenic paradigm and has stated that this disease-focused paradigm has dominated our healthcare system. He claims that there are five important consequences of this domination:

  1. ‘We have come to think dichotomously about people, classifying them as either healthy or diseased’ (p. 115). Those categorised as ‘healthy’ are normal, those categorised as non-healthy or ‘d
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6.3 Responsibility for health and illness

In Activity 6 you explored factors which influence people's experience of health and we noted that inequalities in health are clearly related to the conditions of people's lives, such as their housing, income and education. On the other hand, health education messages have tended to focus on behaviour – what we
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3.5 People's views on health

Health accounts, as well as being based in the experience of health, also relate to health behaviour. People's accounts of health are likely to be different at different stages in their lives. Two health promotion researchers, Backett and Davison (1992), have investigated the perceptions of health at different stages of life. Their work is based on two qualitative studies conducted in Edinburgh and South Wales. In these studies, health was also linked to health behaviours. The stage of life w
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3.2 Health and the middle class

In contrast, a study which focused on white, middle-class men and women between the ages of 35 and 55 (Saltonstall, 1993) found that respondents' views of health were closely connected to wellbeing, and this condition of being was related to ‘capacity, performance and function’ (p. 8). Saltonstall reports that the respondents, both male and female, catalogued what he called a ‘health inventory’ which included things they felt they had and things they thought they were expected to do t
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1.1 Introduction

Like many subjects, mental health is complex. This is partly because the language used in discussions about mental health is diverse, can mean different things to different people, and can sometimes be misleading. For example, the term ‘mental health’ is usually used in discussions about just the opposite: ‘mental illness’! There are, however, good reasons for the confusion surrounding its language. One reason is that decisions about what constitutes ‘mental health’, ‘men
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7.7 References for Extract 6

Barclay, R. (1982) Social Workers: Their Role and Tasks, London, NISW, Bedford Square Press.

De Long, P. and Berg, I.K. (2001) ‘Co-constructing Cooperation with Mandated Clients’, Social Work, 46(4), pp. 361–74.

Department of Health (DoH) (1998) Modernising Social Services, London, HMSO.

Harris, R. (1997) ‘Power’ in Davies, M. (ed.) The Blackwell Companion to Social Work, Oxford, Blackwell.

Hugman, R. (1991) Power in the Caring
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7.2 The key purpose of social work

The starting point for the development of these standards is the identification of the key purpose of social work, for which the international definition of social work has been adopted:

a profession which promotes social change, problem solving in human relationships and the empowerment and liberation of people to enhance well-being. Utilising theories of human behaviour and social systems, social work intervenes at t
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5.2 The developmental needs of the child

The Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and their Families (DH, 2000) emphasises the need for a thorough understanding of child development. There has been extensive and sometimes contradictory research into how children develop and the factors that influence their development. Aldgate (2004) outlines the development-ecological model for understanding child development, which recognises the importance of comprehending both the genetic and the ecological factors that influence dev
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4.6 References for Extract 3

British Association of Social Workers (BASW) (2002) A Code of Ethics for Social Workers, Birmingham, BASW.

O'Dowd, A. (2003) ‘Social work? That’s a proper job now: New training and rules have changed it for ever’, The Guardian Special Supplement: Social Care, 15 October, p. 7.


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3.8 Psychosocial theories of identity

This section does not discuss theories of identity in detail. It is important to note, however, that the theory associated with Erik Erikson, a German psychoanalyst who worked in the USA from the 1930s, has been very influential in social work and continues to be so. Erikson (1950) proposed eight stages of life, from infancy to old age, and each stage had its own particular task in the development of an individual's identity.

Erikson's theory is one of several and should not be regarded
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2.7 Summary of Extract 1

This first extract has raised some complex and important issues, such as questions about what we mean by professional social work practice and values, which will be explored further. You have also been introduced to the four components of good practice which will provide a framework as you develop your professional competence through practice learning. The authors of these extracts use these components so that you will get some experience of applying them to the ‘case’ material over the n
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2.4.1 Social work values

You will have come across the Code of Practice for Social Care Workers when you looked at the Framework documents for your country. These Codes are the main documents relating to values in the framework documents. Before looking in detail at the different aspects of the code, it is helpful to look at what ‘values’ are, where they come from, and the context in which social work values have arisen and are being put into practice.


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2.3 Component 1: Knowledge

What exactly is meant by knowledge and theory and how can it inform practice? This question cannot be fully answered here, but the following section maps out the kinds of knowledge that are relevant to practice.


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References

American College of Sports Medicine (2006) ACSM's Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription (7th edn), London, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
Pollock, M.L., Gaesser, G.A., Butcher, J.D., Després, J.P., Dishman, R.K., Franklin, B.A. and Ewing Garber, C. (1998) ‘ACSM position stand: The recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness,
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1.1.3 Time

The recommended duration of an aerobic exercise session is dependent on several factors, such as the participant’s goals and fitness levels, and the intensity of exercise. Obviously, the higher the intensity of the exercise, the shorter will be its duration. As a general guide the ACSM recommends between twenty and sixty minutes of aerobic exercise, which can be undertaken either continuously – i.e. all at once – or intermittently – i.e. in shorter bouts accumulated during the day (AC
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