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4.4 Statutory Instruments

The vast majority of delegated legislation is in the form of Statutory Instruments (SIs). SIs are rules and regulations made by Government ministers acting under the delegated power given to them or their department by Parliament in a broadly drafted parent or enabling Act concerning their area of responsibility, for example, health or transport or education. SIs are normally drafted by the legal department of the minister concerned and are just as much part of the law as their parent or enab
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3,3,7 Royal Assent

You have already seen references to Royal Assent in this unit. The monarch formally assents to a Bill in order for it to pass into law. Royal Assent has never been withheld in recent times. Queen Anne was the last monarch to withhold a Royal Assent, when she blocked a Scottish Militia Bill in 1707. The Queen feared a Scottish militia might be turned against the monarchy.

Since the sixteenth century no monarch has actually signed a Bill themselves. Instead, the monarch signs what are kno
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3.3.4 Report stage

A Bill that has been amended in committee stage is reviewed by the House in which it started. The amendments will be debated in the House and accepted or rejected. Further amendments may also be added.


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3.1 Types of Bill

Figure 7
Figure 7 The Houses of Parliament.

An Act of Parliament starts off as a Bill. A Bill is a proposal for a new piece of legislation that
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2.9 (v) Private Members' Bills

Individual Members of Parliament have the power to introduce their own legislation known as a Private Members' Bill. An example of a successful Private Members' Bill which became law is the Marriage Act 1994 introduced by Gyles Brandreth who was MP for Chester at the time. This Act allows people to marry in any registered place, not just a Register Office or religious building. Private Members' Bills may be the result of an MP being approached for support for a proposal put forward by particu
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The House of Commons

The members of the House of Commons are elected by the public, with the country being divided into constituencies and each of these returning one Member of Parliament (known as an MP). There must be a general election every five years, though an election can be called sooner by the Prime Minister. The Government of the day is generally formed by the political party which has the most MPs elected to the House of Commons. The Prime Minister will usually be the leader of the largest political pa
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6.4 How is law made?

The Scotland Act 1998 provided minimum requirements for the process which was to be followed by the Parliament in creating law by considering and passing Bills. Section 36(1) of the Scotland Act 1998 required there to be at least three distinct stages to which Bills are subject, including a stage when members can debate and vote on the general principles of the Bill, a stage when they can consider and vote on its details, and a final stage when the Bill can be passed or rejected.


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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • identify and describe what is meant by a formal rule and understand the problems associated with rule making;

  • explain what is meant by policy and why it is important;

  • understand how formal rules are constructed;

  • explain the difference between specific and general rules, and why the difference matters;

  • explain why the language of formal rules is important;

  • ex
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Introduction

This unit is designed as an introduction to the academic study of the concept of rules, but will also serve as an introduction to a variety of different writing styles that are used in the academic world. It will challenge you to think about why some statements are rules and some are not, and what it is that distinguishes rules from habits and customs. It also looks at more formal rules and how such rules are applied and enforced. Rules shape our lives because they set out what we may and may
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3.3 What were the fundamental human rights which required protection?

Earlier in this unit you explored why certain rights were considered to be basic human rights. These can be described as those rights of individuals or groups relating to human dignity and fundamental freedoms, which require legal protection from adverse interference by the state, where those rights derive from the fact of being human. Such rights can be traced back to two aspects of international law, namely customary international law and treaty law. The former derives from the customs adop
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2.3 The Red Cross

Humanitarian law was another area of international growth in the recognition of human rights. It gathered pace in the nineteenth century due to the work of Henri Durant, a Swiss philanthropist. He witnessed several battles where great atrocities were committed by the armies of nation states. These experiences led him to attempt to establish a permanent system for humanitarian relief, where private societies would supplement the work of army medical corps of nation states. In 1863 a conference
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should:

  • understand the historical growth of the idea of human rights;

  • be aware of the international context of human rights;

  • be aware of the position of human rights in the UK prior to 1998;

  • understand the importance of the Human Rights Act 1998;

  • have practised analysing and evaluating concepts and ideas;

  • have started to see links between the core concepts of rules, rights and
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3.2 The evolution of the EU

The EU has grown out of a series of intergovernmental political initiatives which have been expressed in a number of treaties. These treaties form the building blocks that give authority and power to the institutions and law-making bodies of the EU. The process is evolutionary, as treaties are reviewed and amended to reflect both the changing membership and the vision of the EU.

The EU is founded on several treaties:

  1. The treaty that established
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • have a basic understanding of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR);

  • have an understanding of the European Union (EU);

  • acquire a basic knowledge about the EU institutions;

  • acquire an understanding of the sources of EU law;

  • acquire a knowledge of the interaction between EU law and domestic law.


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1.7.3 What is proportion?

A common criticism of many children's and some adults' drawings is that certain parts are not ‘in proportion’. That means that they are either too big or too small in relation to the rest of the masterpiece. ‘In proportion’ means being in the same ratio. Imagine that you have drawn a picture of the front of your house, reducing it in scale to one twentieth of its size.

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5 Example of a straightforward subtraction

In the example below of a straightforward subtraction, in every column the digit at the top of the column is bigger than the digit at the bottom. Click on each step in turn to see how to carry out the calculation.

13 Dividing decimal numbers – an example

Say you want to divide 39.44 by 2.9. After adjusting the decimal points this becomes 394.4 divided by 29. The division, ignoring the decimal point, is shown below.

The final step is to insert the decimal point in the right place in your answer. Click on step 1 below to see how.

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Steering Clear of the Sustainability Reporting Trap
Companies get stuck in box-checking when it comes to sustainability. But there is substantial value to be found in making sustainability a strategy.
Author(s): Jan van der Kaaij, Managing Partner and Co-Founder

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Solving Math Word Problems
In math word problems, it's important to figure out what the facts are and what is being asked for. Solve math word problems with tips from a math teacher in this video on solving math problems.
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2.3.1 Cylinder

The simplest example of a paper-and-glue construction is to make a rectangle into a cylinder by gluing together two opposite edges. We take a closed rectangle ABB' A' in the plane and identify the opposite edges AB and A'B', as shown in Figure 27. This means that:

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