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2.1 Communication technologies

With the Industrial Revolution the idea of ‘news’ developed rapidly, and these days most people in the UK and other developed countries have concept of ‘the news’. We expect to be kept up to date with the news through various sources, and to satisfy this expectation we have the businesses of newsgathering and dissemination of news.

In this section you will be learning about the development of the technologies used for newsgathering and dissemination by reading extracts from a pa
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7.2.5 Virtual communities

A virtual community is a website which sells some product or service. In this respect there is no difference from an e-shop. The feature which distinguishes a virtual community is that the operator of the website provides facilities whereby the customers for a product or a service interact with each other, for example by pointing out ways a product can be improved. Technologies used for this interaction include mailing lists, bulletin boards and FAQ lists. The theory behind virtual communitie
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7.2.1 E-shop

This is the most ubiquitous form of commerce on the World Wide Web. It involves a company presenting a catalogue of its wares to internet users and providing facilities whereby such customers can purchase these products. Almost invariably such a site will contain facilities for ordering and paying for products by means of credit cards. The sophistication of sites described by this business model range from just the simple presentation of a static catalogue to the presentation of an interactiv
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1.1.2 La mairie/l'hôtel de ville

The French use both la mairie and l'hôtel de ville when referring to the town hall. In general, la mairie is used in smaller towns and villages. La mairie is also used to describe the range of functions and services headed by le maire (the mayor).


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3.5.2 Link checking sites

The World Wide Web contains millions of web pages. Many of these pages are impossible to read, even though many existing web pages will reference them: your browser will usually return with some message such as ‘Error 404 Page not Found’ when you try to access them. Error 404 is a standard message returned by web servers when a non-existent page is accessed. It is also the telephone area code for Atlanta in the United States; you will occasionally hear technical staff referring to non-exi
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1.6.4 Supporting data management strategies

Most of the development we've covered so far in this unit has focused on meeting specific user requirements – that is, ensuring the right data are constrained correctly and made available to the right user processes. However, other questions must also be addressed in order to support a data management strategy: How frequently should data be backed-up? What auditing mechanisms are required? Which users will be permitted to perform which functions? Which database tools and user processes wil
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4.4 Summary

This section described how computers can be used in geographical applications (and in doing so it discussed maps and showed how modern maps are composed of layers of different data).

It discussed the GPS to demonstrate how computers can communicate in order to solve a problem, such as navigation.

It also showed how the geographical data that supports both map-making and the GPS navigation system can be presented in different forms such as a map, a list of directions, a moving grap
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4.2.2 Using the web more effectively: gateways

A gateway on the web is a website intended to direct users to other preselected websites containing information on a particular topic. It can also refer to a computer that acts as a message router on the internet

University librarians often set up gateways for particular areas of study, although they may be set up by anyone with sufficient expertise in a topic. Gateways may be fairly general, such as a gateway site for sciences, or more specific, such as a gateway for part
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4.2.1 Search engines: what are they?

The computer application that facilitates finding things on the web is known as a search engine. This is an application that serves a similar function to an index in a book. Figure 9(a) shows the home page of a typical search engine called Google.

Figure 9a
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2.1.2 Data and information

So far, I have used two words in connection with computers: data and information. Did you see any differences in the way the two terms have been used? Let me point out one.

Data refers to discrete items, such as the price of an item on the shelf of a supermarket, or the type of product listed on a sign over a supermarket aisle. The word ‘data’ is a plural Latin word but it is generally used as a singular word in English.

In contrast, information involves linking
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Introduction

This course examines four of the ‘grand theories’ of child development: behaviourism, social learning, constructivism and social constructivism.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of Level 2 study in Education.


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5.2 Technique 2: Relaxation

Here are three relaxation techniques, which you can use before and during the exam.


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4.2.2 Read the whole exam paper through carefully

Students often describe feeling that everyone else starts writing confidently, straight away. Make sure you allow yourself at least 5 minutes to read calmly through the paper. It is tempting to grab at familiar questions, possibly even misreading them and turning them into the questions you want to answer. If you carefully and steadily unpack the questions, you will inevitably make a better selection.


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3.6.4 Using a computer

Besides other things, a computer offers the opportunity to organise, reorganise, and delete material, without having to write everything out every time you make a change. It also allows you to make notes as you go along, file them easily, and add and update them in your revision period.

You may even find that one of your software packages supports a facility for making notes. You will certainly have a range of layout facilities and graphics to enhance your notes.

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3.6 Stage 5: Understanding and learning the course material

Simply reading and re-reading the course materials will take you more time than you can afford, and is not an effective way of learning material for an exam. Adopt what is called an active approach to learning for your exam. Different subjects demand different active methods but, generally speaking, this approach involves you in manipulating or doing things with the material in a way that helps it to stick, so you can recall it later.

The first thing you need to do is to reduce t
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3.2 Stage 1: Finding out about the exam paper

As a first step, it is a good idea to find out as much as you can about the exam paper for your course. Find out how your exam paper is set out, the way the questions are organised, and what weight each question carries in terms of marks. Different papers adopt different formats. Some require multiple-choice answers. Others ask for essay or short paragraph answers. Some require technical or numerical answers. Reading the instructions on the exam paper is particularly important, as the followi
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3.1.1 First find a place to revise

Other than the obvious suggestions of having a warm, well-lit and comfortable place to work, we also suggest that you think about choosing a revision place where you can spread out your materials and leave them as they are, without having to pack anything away. This means that you can pick up and put down your revision whenever you find time to revise. This will help you to make the most of your revision time.

On the other hand, you may find that you concentrate better away from the dis
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2.2 Your motivation

Activity 2

Why did you decide to become a student and what do you hope to gain from your studies?

Think about this question for a few minutes and then note down your response.


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Learning outcomes

The broad aim of this unit is to provide a framework for learning-based activities and reflective exercises. More specifically, it is designed to offer you the opportunity to:

  • think about and understand how you learn;

  • apply the ideas and activities in this unit to your own learning experiences;

  • learn how to become a reflective learner.


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References

Entwistle, N. (1997) ‘Contrasting perspectives on learning’ in Marton, F., Hounsell, D. and Entwistle, N. (eds) The Experience of Learning: Implications for teaching and studying in Higher Education, Edinburgh, Scottish Academic Press Limited.
Marton, F. and R. Saljo (1997) ‘Approaches to learning’ in Marton, F., Hounsell, D. and Entwistle, N. (eds) The Experience of Learning: Implications for teachi
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