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Introduction

This unit takes one aspect of the debate concerning the new economy – innovation in the form of the introduction of information and communication technologies – and places it in the historical context of industrial revolutions. Is the new economy really new or ‘just another’ industrial revolution?

This unit is an adapted extract from the course Economics and economic change (
Author(s): The Open University

Introduction

The material presented here focuses on the politics of racial violence in Britain. The material is an audio file, originally 30 minutes in length, and examines the issues around this subject. It was recorded in 1995.

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Crime, order and social control (D315) which is no longer taught by The Open University. If you want to study formally with us, you may wish to explore other courses we offer in this Author(s): The Open University

1.1 Note taking in this context

Although the audio file included in this unit was designed to compliment the D218 Social Policy: Welfare, Power and Diversity Open University course its contents are still relevant to anyone wishing to improve their understanding of note taking. The audio file, however, uses specific examples associated with the Social Sciences.

The audio file was recorded in 1998. John Clarke discusses the value and best ways of note taking with OU colleagues Esther Saraga and Gerry Mooney.


Author(s): The Open University

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1.5.9 Plagiarism

Referencing is not only useful as a way of sharing information, but also as a means of ensuring that due credit is given to other people’s work. In the electronic information age, it is easy to copy and paste from journal articles and web pages into your own work. But if you do use someone else’s work, you should acknowledge the source by giving a correct reference.

Taking someone's work and not indicating where you took it from is termed plagiarism and is regarded as an infringemen
Author(s): The Open University

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1.5.7 Referencing

We mentioned above that we need to reference sources to ensure we abide by copyright legislation. But there is another reason we need to give accurate references to items we use – so we can share it.

Consider this scenario. A friend says they’ve just read an interesting article where Joshua Schachter, founder of Delicious has spoken about why it isn’t a faceted search system, and you should read it. How would you go about finding it? Would you start looking in a news database, a s
Author(s): The Open University

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1.3.1 Introduction

You can find a lot of information about society on the internet.

To find this information you might choose to use:

  • internet resources;

  • search engines and subject gateways;

  • books and electronic books;

  • databases;

  • journals;

  • encyclopedias.


Author(s): The Open University

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1.2.3 Basic principles

Whatever resource you choose to use to find information on the internet, many of the same principles apply. Each source that you use will probably look quite different from the one you tried before, but you'll notice that there are always features that are similar – a box to type your search terms in, for instance, or a clickable help button. Different resources refer to the same functions using different terminology, but the principles behind them are exactly the same. The trick is to chec
Author(s): The Open University

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1.2.2 Choosing keywords

Keywords are significant words which define the subject you are looking for. The importance of keywords is illustrated by the fact that there is a whole industry around providing advice to companies on how to select keywords for their websites that are likely to make it to the top of results lists generated by search engines. We often choose keywords as part of an iterative process; usually if we don't hit on the right search terms straight off, most of us tweak them as we go along based on t
Author(s): The Open University

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References

Ahmed, K. (1995) ‘Glasgow reputations: powerful case for the prosecution’, Scotland on Sunday, 13 August.
Au, O. (1995) ‘Midsummer madness makes one Mean City’, The Sunday Times Scotland, 13 August.
Allardyce, J. (1995) ‘Smiling through’, The Scotsman, 8 August.
Bolitho, W. (1924) Cancer of Empir
Author(s): The Open University

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2.3 Watching the programme

Activity 1: Watching the programme

There are two main themes to consider as you watch the programme:

  • (a) Image and identity

    • Note down examples o
      Author(s): The Open University

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References

Beck, U. (2000) The Brave New World of Work, Cambridge, Polity Press.
Bonacich, E. and Appelbaum, R. (2000) Behind the Label: Inequality in the Los Angeles Apparel Industry, Los Angeles, University of California Press.
Borenstein, S. and Saloner, G. (2001) ‘Economics and electronic commerce’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 3–
Author(s): The Open University

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3.5 Looking ahead: economic change and human well-being

There are different interpretations of the new economy and its impact on human well-being, on whether the changes sometimes labelled the ‘new economy’ are desirable or beneficial. It is time to review the benefits and costs of the new economy.

Question 3


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2.5 Looking ahead: understanding economic change

Section 2 has looked at different ways of understanding the new economy, of understanding what is actually happening.

Question 1

Look back over the different understandings of the new economy. Is there really a new economy – ju
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2.4 Information and communication technologies

The new economy is much more than a shift from manufacturing to services and the increased integration of economies on a global scale. It is also strongly linked to the development of ICT, which has facilitated the development of new processes and products, especially ‘knowledge goods’ which are described below.

The internet has increased the ‘connectivity’ or interconnectedness between economies by making textual communication possible in real time as well as providing a new me
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1 What is the ‘new economy’

10 p.m. Friday evening

Sunil, in India, has just received an email from Claire in Brighton, England, who runs a micro enterprise from her front room, clarifying details of some programming she has just subcontracted.

Tom is at a wine bar celebrating news of a £1 million investment of venture capital in his company.

Stephen has just begun the night shift in a call centre.

Joyce has just left her cleaning job, one of three jobs she currently holds. She is also a
Author(s): The Open University

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1 The politics of racial violence in Britain

Paul Gordon presents a series of views about racial violence from a European perspective. The audio programme was recorded in 1995.

Participants in the audio programme were:

  • Paul Gordon member of The Runnymede Trust (race relations organisation);

  • Liz Fekete researcher at the Institute of Race Relations (educational charity);

  • Cathie Lloyd an academic at Warwick University;


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4 The celebrity persona and the celebrity text

It has been emphasised that we can only know stars through media texts (Dyer, 1998) and this can be extended to seeing celebrities themselves as texts, though for celebrities of any longevity we would certainly have to consider them as large, complex and modulating ones. This section will look at how we might go about reading such a text. There is a distinction between the ‘real’ person and a persona presented in the public arena. One pervasive feature of the ‘large celebrity text’ is
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2.3 The representation of ‘celebrity’

We have already seen the way in which texts gain meaning from other texts by the operation of contrast, but multiple texts are useful to the textual analyst in another way. Looking at a large number of texts dealing with the same subject – celebrity – enables us to detect common themes and narratives (stories), to the extent that with enough repetition we become able to talk about the representation of that subject. Working through a large number of texts about celebrities, we beco
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2.2 The semiotic approach to textual meaning: image and ideology

Activity 2

Think of an image of a celebrity winning an award. How is s/he photographed, dressed and accompanied?

Perhaps the most likely image you thought of was a full-length or mid-shot of the celebrity dres
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Learning outcomes

On completion of this unit, you should be able to:

  • illustrate how CCTV is used for general surveillance;

  • give examples of how CCTV can be used for crime control.


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