Former Singaporean PM's health deteriorates further
The health of former Singapore Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew weakens further as his son and current Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong visits him in hospital. Julie Noce reports. Subscribe: http://smarturl.it/reuterssubscribe More updates and breaking news: http://smarturl.it/BreakingNews Reuters tells the world's stories like no one else. As the largest international multimedia news provider, Reuters provides coverage around the globe and across topics including business, financial, national, and i
Author(s): No creator set

License information
Related content

Environmental Statistics
This lecture is given to provide common statistical skills to analyze and interpret data sets obtained in environmental science and management. Main topics are probability, hypothesis testing, multivariate analysis, time series analysis, and risk assessment. Students are required to work on exercises to acquire substantial understanding both in theory and application.
Author(s): TOKYO TECH OCW

License information
Related content

Rights not set

2.1.1 Probability ratios

Probability calculations are important in many branches of science, but nowhere more so than in genetics. Box 4 describes early work in the field and provides some illustrative data, based on plant-breeding experiments.

Before working with these data, it is important to understand how the results have been presented. Raw data from breeding experiments come in terms of descriptions and numbers, as with the examples given in Box 4, but results are often reported by expressing the numbers
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

3 Risk perception

At first glance, the public response to the risk of a link between MMR and autism appears to be wildly disproportionate. From a scientific point of view, an association is unsupported by major epidemiological studies involving vast numbers of participants. Neither has evidence been presented of a plausible biological mechanism. Common sense would seem to dictate that the claim to any link simply lacks credibility and well-informed parents should behave ‘rationally’ and allow their childre
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

2.1 Structure and function of the outer and middle ear

Figure 1 is a diagram of the human ear. The outer ear consists of the visible part of the ear or pinna, the external auditory canal (meatus), and the tympanic membrane (tympanum) or eardrum. The human pinna is formed primarily of cartilage and is attached to the head by muscles and ligaments. The deep central portion of the
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Introduction

This unit introduces the topic of vectors. The subject is developed without assuming you have come across it before, but the unit assumes that you have previously had a basic grounding in algebra and trigonometry, and how to use Cartesian coordinates for specifying a point in a plane.

This study unit is an adapted extract from the Open University course MST209 Mathematical methods and models, which is no longer taught by the University. If you want to study formally with us, you
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2013 The Open University

Introduction

In this unit you will see first how to convert vectors from geometric form, in terms of a magnitude and direction, to component form, and then how conversion in the opposite sense is accomplished. The ability to convert between these different forms of a vector is useful in certain problems involving displacement and velocity, as shown in Section 2, in which you will also work with bearings.

This study unit is an adapted extract from the Open University course MST121 Using mathemati
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2013 The Open University

1.4.8 Summary

In this section we have introduced you to the PROMPT checklist as a useful tool for assessing the quality of any piece of information. If you use it regularly you will find that you develop the ability to scan information quickly and identify strengths and weaknesses. As a closing exercise you might like to pick one of the websites below or any of your own choice and try to evaluate it using the PROMPT criteria. To make it easier for you we have provided a printable checklist (see below).
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

1.3.9 Summary

There is a lot of information available on maths and statistics via the internet. Try the activity below to start exploring what is available.

Activity 1

1.3.3 Books and electronic books

Books are a good source of information. The publishing process (where a book is checked by an editor before publishing, and often reviewed by another author) means that books are reliable sources of information, although they may need to be evaluated for bias. A growing number of books can be found online.

Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Evolution: artificial selection and domestication
In the 18th and 19th century evolutionary biologists, including Darwin, emphasised the similarities between natural evolution and artificial 'improvement' of livestock under domestication. They believed that studying domesticated animals and plants could illuminate the mechanisms of natural evolution. This free course, Evolution: artificial selection and domestication, provides an introduction to their work. Author(s): Creator not set

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

Introduction

We begin this course by looking at an estuary, a place where sea, land and sky meet. We have chosen a particular estuary: the Blackwater estuary on the Essex coast in eastern England. Although the Blackwater has its own unique characteristics, it is used here as a setting, a device for approaching the study of environments. Like any other estuary, the Blackwater brings together a diverse range of processes, elements and issues that constitute the environment. It offers us a way into thinking
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce mate
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2013 The Open University

1.4.1 Introduction

Up to now I have focused on the claims of the antisweatshop movement and the counter-claims of those who contest the purely negative conclusions drawn about the exploitation of another country's poor. To that end, I have, at various moments, touched on issues of demands to take responsibility: whether, for instance, responsibility for sweatshops should be divided up in some way between all those connected to the market system which gives rise to them, or placed firmly at the door of the big r
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2013 The Open University

2.3 Using conversation to construct environmental responsibility

If conversation is a creative exercise, in what sense might this be applied to the concept of responsibility around climate change? As David Cooper implies (Box 3), global ideas about the environment, such as climate change, are necessarily abstract and therefore lack the meaning and significance required to nurture appropriate respon
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

2.2 Informal and formal conversations

The process of conversation is, of course, interactive. It requires listening (Figure 5) and feeding back. In human conversations the interactive process is largely enabled through a shared language. In conversing with nature the challenge is in formulating the right ‘language’, in terms of both ‘listening’ and ‘feeding back
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

8 Summary

  • We are biologically predisposed to provide for our offspring and may try to ensure that this provision continues after our death. However, our interactions with other members of society are wide-ranging and many people leave legacies to benefit the wider community.

  • All species alter their environment to some extent because they do not live in isolation from one another. The study of the interactions between plants, animals and their environ
    Author(s): The Open University

    License information
    Related content

    Copyright © 2013 The Open University

6 Population growth

Earlier it was stated that three factors check population growth. These are predation, disease and insufficient food supply. For much of our history, our ancestors’ numbers were indeed limited by wars, disease and famine. The world population remained relatively stable until around 300 years ago. Then at the beginning of the 19th century (100 years after population growth started its geometric increase), the demographer Thomas Malthus predicted that population growth would outstrip food pro
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2013 The Open University

5.2 Air pollution

There are many popular beliefs about air quality and health. As a child you might have been exhorted to, ‘go out and play in the nice fresh air’. Mountain air is often regarded as being particularly beneficial, especially for those who are recuperating from or suffering some types of respiratory diseases.