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Understanding the past
Care can make deep inroads into personal lives and life narratives, so it is essential that care workers are sensitive to this and provide appropriate support. In this free course, Understanding the past, the history of Lennox Castle Hospital in Scotland provides a focus for considering the impact of institutional life. First published on Fri, 14
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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

Acknowledgements

This content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence. See Terms and Conditions.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

Sally Pawlik, Careers consultant
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8 Sources of references

Virtual voluntary work

  • Voluntary Worker: virtual volunteering
  • NABUUR, a comprehensive information site, suggesting a wide range of opportunities. A ‘global neighbour network, but everything done online’.
  • Horsesmouth, an online coaching and mentoring network.
  • TheSite.org: what can a virtual volunteer do? A good description of a range of virtual possible activities, from media and publicity, campaigning, information and ad
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7 FAQs

These questions represent general issues about ‘getting started’, but they have a particular focus on special requirements, whether it’s about volunteering for particular age groups or virtual volunteering for those with a lack of regular time to commit, or problems with mobility.

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1.2 Standing out from the crowd

‘Volunteering looks great on your CV….It’s the perfect way to get a taste of working life and gain skills and experience’

CSV website

Employers are impressed by voluntary work, but what are the hard facts about this?

Research carrie
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1.1 Introduction

Recent findings show that volunteers report higher ratings on the measures of life satisfaction, happiness, and feeling that the things they do in life are worthwhile. Last year the number of people volunteering at least once a month rose to 29%, which may be thanks in part to the high profile volunteering received
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References

Ashcroft, S. and Timms, N. (1992) What Europe Thinks, Aldershot, Dartmouth.
Baker, S. (2001) ‘Environmental governance in the EU’ in Thompson, G. (ed.) Governing the European Economy, London, Sage/The Open University.
Bauer, M. and Bertin-Mourot, B. (1999) ‘National models for making and legitimating elites’, European Societies, vol.1, no.1, pp.9
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1.9 Conclusion

If we try to recapitulate what we have done in this course two main areas need to be considered: is there likely to be a European identity in the near future? and how important are national sentiments going to be?

While it could be said that by the end of the twentieth century the EU had become a reasonably integrated economic space politically, and especially at the cultural level, progress was limited. But even at the economic level, areas like labour mobility were still very low in t
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1.7.2 Summary

  • The EU is an economic, juridical and, to a certain extent, a political reality but a single European public space has not emerged yet.

  • The establishment of European citizenship could play a crucial part in fostering a common European public space.

  • European citizenship could encourage Europeans to play a more active role in EU affairs and participate in governance processes.


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1.5.2 Summary

  • The development of a European identity will be the outcome of a long process in which bottom-up as well as top-down initiatives are likely to be employed.


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1.5.1 A true community of Europeans?

Ray Hudson (Hudson and Williams, 1999) has maintained that the formation of a true community of Europeans is important and desirable, and that it will not follow automatically from the converging of linguistic and cultural practices. It is difficult to envisage the disappearance of national differences, though they may be less pronounced in the future. What seems to be clear for Hudson is that only by looking at the future can a European identity be created; the past, unless highly sanitised,
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1.4.2 Unification and the EU

With the development of the EU an arena for collective action has appeared. But, as we shall see in SubSection 1.4.3, it is rather limited and it cannot be compared to the public sphere of the member states. Although collective actors have reacted to the emergence of new European-based institutions, due to internal constraints not
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1.3.2 Summary

  • The shifting character of European geographical boundaries is illustrated by Turkey and the other twelve countries from Central and Eastern Europe which are currently negotiating access to the EU.

  • The boundaries of Europe change depending on whether Europe is defined in terms of institutional structures, historical geography or observed patterns of social, economic and political interaction.


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1.2.2 Summary

  • The results of successive editions of the Eurobarometer show that in most EU countries only a very small percentage of people, around 5 per cent, declare having an exclusive European identity, while up to 50 per cent do not have any sense of European identity.

  • European political identity is weak and there is a great variation across states.


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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to
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1.12 The politics of representation

We turn now to consider Diana as an icon, as the subject of discourse. It could be said that Diana and the many words written about her form a discursive space (Gilbert et al., 1999; Silverstone, 1998). She is the rather enigmatic centre of many competing representations of royalty, femininity, democracy, the family, morality, celebrity, fashion, private versus public life which jostle with each other. Such a discursive space is a place of argument. To use another metaphor, it i
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1.8.1 Discursive practices are flexible

In general terms, then, the interaction order is not a set of hard and fast rules which people follow like social dopes. Rather, discursive practices are flexible and creative resources. Genres may be mixed together and new genres can emerge. Part of the task of ethnographers of communication is to try to describe the diversity across social situations. In effect, they are charting what they call communicative ecologies (Gumperz, 1999): the variable and dynamic discursive practices fou
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1.7.1 Footing

The practices which make up a speech event or the interaction order can be quite fine grained. In documentary programmes such as Panorama, for instance, interviewers have to be particularly sensitive to the accusation that they are biased, that they are not sufficiently detached or impartial. As Clayman (1992) demonstrates, one way interviewers achieve this while still asking pertinent and provocative questions is through adjusting their footing. The term ‘footing’ again com
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1.5.1 The co-production of meaning

The third sense in which discourse is a social action refers to the origins of meanings. Meaning emerges from complex social and historical processes. It is conventional and normative. We have some idea what it signifies to say Prince Charles is a proud man because we are members of a speaking community and culture which has agreed associations for ‘proud man’. We draw on those to make sense. Meaning is also relational. Proud signifies as it does because of the existence of other t
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