The equation 23Â =Â 8 means that 3 is the index of the power to which we raise the number 2 to produce 8.

A logarithm is an index, and in this example, 3 is the logarithm of 8 to the base 2. We write this as

Log2 8Â =Â 3

These two equations are identical: 23Â =Â 8 and log2 8Â =Â 3

They express the same fact in the language of logarithms.

Author(s): The Open University

We are going to look at some of the basics of trigonometry relating to right angle triangles. So the first question is, What is a right angle triangle?

It is a triangle in which one of the angles is 90Â°, which is commonly referred to as a right angle. The sum of the angles in any triangle is 180Â°. So if the other two angles are Î± and Î² as in Author(s): The Open University

Simultaneous equations are pairs of equations that are both true (i.e. they are simultaneously true). They are both expressed as equations with two unknowns. By making one of these unknowns the subject of both equations, we can then substitute the subject in one equation and then solve for the other unknown. Then we can substitute back into the equation and solve for the subject.

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This exercise is an emergency relaxation technique to counteract panic and the build up of tension.

1. Say sharply to yourself STOP! (aloud if the situation permits).

2. Breathe in and hold your breath for a moment before slowly exhaling. As you do so, relax your shoulders and hands.

3. Pause for a moment, then breathe in slowly again and hold. This time, as you breathe out relax your forehead and jaw.

4. Stay qu
Author(s): The Open University

Here is a rewording of some of the negative student comments from Section 2, which we have re-worded into positive comments.

Negative Positive
I am no good at exams, I
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When you come out of the exam try to forget it. Going over what you have written with other students can make you worry about areas you haven't covered. Go and enjoy a planned treat as a personal reward for all your hard work.

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Using the format of introduction, main body and conclusion outlined in Section 3, write up your answer to the question.

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You may find it useful to plan the way you will start your exam. Having a routine can be calming when under pressure. This is from a student who recommends a checklist:

I have a mental checklist of what I need to do once I've turned over the paper. I do this because I used to rush in and answer the fir
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4.1 Arriving and getting ready

When you arrive at the exam centre, you may prefer to stay quietly on your own, rather than chat to other students. Do what suits you best and helps you to feel calm and positive. Once you are in your seat, try not to look around. Your senses can be heightened by tension and can fasten on irrelevant details, such as what other students are doing or wearing. Try visualising a relaxing scene, or relax using breathing exercises. Visualisation and relaxation exercises are described in Author(s): The Open University

3.11.3 Maths, sciences and technology

The additional points we would want you to be aware of as you plan your revision in these subjects relate to the different ways in which you are called upon to present your answers. These might be:

• short reports

• dif
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3.10 Thinking about the exam

It is worth noting the difference between exam answers and assignments. Inevitably, a much lengthier and more polished answer can be produced in an untimed assignment. In the short time available in the exam, you need to move quickly through your main points, without paying too much attention to your style. Examiners are fully aware of the constraints exams place on the writer. Focus on the question you have chosen, and underline or highlight the process words or instructions in the question.
Author(s): The Open University

3.8.2 Analysing and answering essay-based exam questions

For the following activity, you can use questions from a specimen paper, past papers or even questions you have devised for yourself.

## Activity 9

Exam questions for essay-based courses often contain 'process words'. These require you t
Author(s): The Open University

3.7 Memory and Understanding

## Memory and understanding

Exams are rarely tests of memory, but much more to do with the selection, presentation and interpretation of materials. When you have understood what you have read, you can think about it and use it. Nonetheless, you may still be concerned about your ability to remember the info
Author(s): The Open University

3.6.3 Making audio tapes

Why not try recording material from your summary sheets, or cards, onto audio tape? Students who have a strong auditory memory find information sticks if they hear it rather than read it. You could play the tape back to yourself when travelling by train or car.

Author(s): The Open University

3.3 Stage 2: Gathering the course material together

You will need to gather all your course material and lecture notes together, and organise them properly. Your course material or texts should contain an overview of your course. Keep this to hand, as it will prove invaluable in you come to identify the topics you will need to revise.

There are also other sources of information that you can draw on when gathering information for your revision.

Author(s): The Open University

3.2 Stage 1: Finding out about the exam paper

As a first step, it is a good idea to find out as much as you can about the exam paper for your course. Find out how your exam paper is set out, the way the questions are organised, and what weight each question carries in terms of marks. Different papers adopt different formats. Some require multiple-choice answers. Others ask for essay or short paragraph answers. Some require technical or numerical answers. Reading the instructions on the exam paper is particularly important, as the followi
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2.1 Finding out your key concerns

Each one of us has a different set of concerns about preparing for and taking exams. It is worth spending a little time reflecting on these concerns and identifying what your individual needs are, in order to set up good support strategies for yourself.

### Activity 1

Author(s): The Open University

Learning outcomes

This unit will:

• help you to manage your time more effectively when you're revising and in the exam itself

• help you to learn, or brush up on, revision and exam skills

• offer reassurance to those of you who experience anxiety and stress at exam time.

Author(s): The Open University

Introduction

Do you feel that sometimes you don't do yourself justice in exams? Perhaps you've never taken an exam and are wondering how to prepare yourself. It may have been a long time since you took an exam, and you feel a need to refresh your technique. You may be looking for reassurance and advice because you've had a bad exam experience in the past.

This unit aims to help you to improve your own revision and exam techniques and reassure others who experience anxiety and stress over exams.

Author(s): The Open University

9.1 Reflection and the four main phases of learning how to learn

If your course encourages this approach to learning, or if you have read other material on learning how to learn, you may have come across the term 'reflection'. Maybe you have been encouraged to reflect on your learning or on your assignments. In this unit, we have deliberately not used the term until now. This is not because we think the term - or the process - is unimportant, but because it can seem vague and not particularly helpful to you as a learner. In fact, all the activities in this
Author(s): The Open University