Centre of Evidence Based Dermatology
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Skin of Colour Resource

 

Hyperpigmentation (see also Melasma)
 

Hyperpigmentation—general

Dermatosis papulosa nigra 1

Dermatosis papulosa nigra. © DermNetNZ

Melanonychia 1

Melanonychia. © DermNetNZ

 

 

 

Pitfalls in clinical trials reveal need for well tolerated, more effective depigmenting agents.
Saxena S, Andersen RM, Maibach HI.
J Dermatolog Treat. 2015 Oct;26(5):440-50. doi: 10.3109/09546634.2014.998609. Epub 2015 Feb 11. Systematic review.

The use of botanically derived agents for hyperpigmentation: a systematic review.
Fisk WA, Agbai O, Lev-Tov HA, Sivamani RK.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014 Feb;70(2):352-65. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2013.09.048. Epub 2013 Nov 23. Systematic review.

The role of topical retinoids in the treatment of pigmentary disorders: an evidence-based review.
Kang HY, Valerio L, Bahadoran P, Ortonne JP.
Am J Clin Dermatol. 2009;10(4):251-60. doi: 10.2165/00128071-200910040-00005. Systematic review. 

Updated review of genetic reticulate pigmentary disorders.
Zhang J, Li M, Yao Z.
Br J Dermatol. 2017 Apr 13. doi: 10.1111/bjd.15575. [Epub ahead of print]. Review.

Pediatric disorders of pigmentation commonly seen in skin of color.
Ascha M, Irfan M.
Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2016 Dec;35(4):191-200. doi: 10.12788/j.sder.2016.064. Review.

Facial hyperpigmentation in skin of color: Special considerations and treatment.
Vashi NA, Wirya SA, Inyang M, Kundu RV.
Am J Clin Dermatol. 2016 Dec 9. [Epub ahead of print]. Review.

Facial hyperpigmentation in darker skin types: Part 2.
Bala HR, Rodrigues M.
Dermatology in Practice. 2016 Winter;22(4):105-108. Review.

Skin hyperpigmentation in Indian population: Insights and best practice.
Nouveau S, Agrawal D, Kohli M, Bernerd F, Misra N, Nayak CS.Indian J Dermatol. 2016 Sep-Oct;61(5):487-95. doi: 10.4103/0019-5154.190103. Review.

Lichen planus pigmentosus: The controversial consensus.
Ghosh A, Coondoo A.
Indian J Dermatol. 2016 Sep-Oct;61(5):482-6. doi: 10.4103/0019-5154.190108. Review.

Facial hyperpigmentation in darker skin types: Part 1.
Bala HR, Rodrigues M.
Dermatology in Practice. 2016 Autumn;22(3):79-82. Review.

Hyperpigmentation therapy: a review.
Desai SR.
J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2014 Aug;7(8):13-7. Review.

What's new in objective assessment and treatment of facial hyperpigmentation?
Molinar VE, Taylor SC, Pandya AG.
Dermatol Clin. 2014 Apr;32(2):123-35. doi: 10.1016/j.det.2013.12.008. Review.

New and emerging treatments for hyperpigmentation. 
Alexis AF.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2014 Apr;13(4):382-5. Review.

Polypodium leucotomos as an adjunct treatment of pigmentary disorders. 
Nestor M, Bucay V, Callender V, Cohen JL, Sadick N, Waldorf H.
J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2014 Mar;7(3):13-7. Review.

Acquired hyperpigmentations. 
Cestari TF, Dantas LP, Boza JC.
An Bras Dermatol. 2014 Jan-Feb;89(1):11-25. doi: 10.1590/abd1806-4841.20142353. Review.

Pigmentation disorders: hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation. 
Nicolaidou E, Katsambas AD.
Clin Dermatol. 2014 Jan-Feb;32(1):66-72. doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2013.05.026. Review.

Facial hyperpigmentation: causes and treatment. 
Vashi NA, Kundu RV.
Br J Dermatol. 2013 Oct;169 Suppl 3:41-56. doi: 10.1111/bjd.12536. Review.

Clinicopathological correlation of acquired hyperpigmentary disorders. 
Patel AB, Kubba R, Kubba A.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2013 May-Jun;79(3):367-75. doi: 10.4103/0378-6323.110798. Review.

Retinoids and azelaic acid to treat acne and hyperpigmentation in skin of color. 
Woolery-Lloyd HC, Keri J, Doig S.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2013 Apr;12(4):434-7. Review. 

Dermocosmetic management of hyperpigmentations. 
Guerrero D.
Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2012 Dec;139 Suppl 4:S166-9. doi: 10.1016/S0151-9638(12)70130-8. Review.

New horizons in treating disorders of hyperpigmentation in skin of color. 
Konda S, Geria AN, Halder RM.
Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2012 Jun;31(2):133-9. doi: 10.1016/j.sder.2012.03.001. Review. 

Treatment of hyperpigmentation. 
Woolery-Lloyd H, Kammer JN.
Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2011 Sep;30(3):171-5. doi: 10.1016/j.sder.2011.06.004. Review.

Topical retinoids for pigmented skin. 
Geria AN, Lawson CN, Halder RM.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2011 May;10(5):483-9. Review. 

Management of hyperpigmentation in darker racial ethnic groups. 
Grimes PE.
Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2009 Jun;28(2):77-85. doi: 10.1016/j.sder.2009.04.001. Review.

Latest insights into skin hyperpigmentation
Ortonne JP, Bissett DL.
J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2008 Apr;13(1):10-4. doi: 10.1038/jidsymp.2008.7. Review.

New and experimental treatments of cloasma and other hypermelanoses. 
Picardo M, Carrera M.
Dermatol Clin. 2007 Jul;25(3):353-62, ix. Review.

Utilizing combination therapy for ethnic skin. 
Taylor SC.
Cutis. 2007 Jul;80(1 Suppl):15-20. Review.

Established treatments of skin hypermelanoses. 
Nikolaou V, Stratigos AJ, Katsambas AD.
J Cosmet Dermatol. 2006 Dec;5(4):303-8. Review.

[Treatment of localised hyperpigmentation in black skin]. 
Sulimovic L.
Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2006 Nov;133(11):940-4. Review. French. No abstract available.

Retinoid therapy of pigmentary disorders. 
Ortonne JP.
Dermatol Ther. 2006 Sep-Oct;19(5):280-8. Review.

Increasing our understanding of pigmentary disorders. 
Grimes P, Nordlund JJ, Pandya AG, Taylor S, Rendon M, Ortonne JP.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006 May;54(5 Suppl 2):S255-61. Review.

Hyperpigmentation: an overview of the common afflictions. 
Cayce KA, McMichael AJ, Feldman SR.
Dermatol Nurs. 2004 Oct;16(5):401-6, 413-6; quiz 417. Review.

Topical agents used in the management of hyperpigmentation. 
Halder RM, Richards GM.
Skin Therapy Lett. 2004 Jun-Jul;9(6):1-3. Review.

Optimal management of recalcitrant disorders of hyperpigmentation in dark-skinned patients. 
Stratigos AJ, Katsambas AD.
Am J Clin Dermatol. 2004;5(3):161-8. Review.

Management of dyschromias in ethnic skin. 
Halder RM, Richards GM.
Dermatol Ther. 2004;17(2):151-7. Review.

Common hyperpigmentation disorders in adults: Part II. Melanoma, seborrheic keratoses, acanthosis nigricans, melasma, diabetic dermopathy, tinea versicolor, and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. 
Stulberg DL, Clark N, Tovey D.
Am Fam Physician. 2003 Nov 15;68(10):1963-8. Review.

Disorders of hyperpigmentation. 
Pandya AG, Guevara IL.
Dermatol Clin. 2000 Jan;18(1):91-8, ix. Review.

Regional dermatoses in the African. Part I. Facial hypermelanosis. 
Olumide YM, Odunowo BD, Odiase AO.
Int J Dermatol. 1991 Mar;30(3):186-9. Review.

 

Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation

Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation 1

Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation in irritant dermatitis. © DermNetNZ

Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation 2

Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation in inflamed cyst. © DermNetNZ

 

 

 

Laser treatments for postinflammatory hyperpigmentation: A systematic review.
Agbai O, Hamzavi I, Jagdeo J.
JAMA Dermatol. 2016 Dec 14. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2016.4399. [Epub ahead of print]. Systematic review.

Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation: A comprehensive overview: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and noninvasive assessment technique.
Silpa-Archa N, Kohli I, Chaowattanapanit S, Lim HW, Hamzavi I.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017 Oct;77(4):591-605. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2017.01.035. Review.

Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation: A comprehensive overview: Treatment options and prevention.
Chaowattanapanit S, Silpa-Archa N, Kohli I, Lim HW, Hamzavi I.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017 Oct;77(4):607-621. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2017.01.036. Review.

What devices to use or not use in skin of color.
Alam M.
Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2016 Dec;35(4):218-222. doi: 10.12788/j.sder.2016.061. Review.

Facial hyperpigmentation in skin of color: Special considerations and treatment.
Vashi NA, Wirya SA, Inyang M, Kundu RV.
Am J Clin Dermatol. 2016 Dec 9. [Epub ahead of print]. Review.

Skin hyperpigmentation in Indian population: Insights and best practice.
Nouveau S, Agrawal D, Kohli M, Bernerd F, Misra N, Nayak CS.Indian J Dermatol. 2016 Sep-Oct;61(5):487-95. doi: 10.4103/0019-5154.190103. Review.

Facial hyperpigmentation in darker skin types: Part 1.
Bala HR, Rodrigues M.
Dermatology in Practice. 2016 Autumn;22(3):79-82. Review.

Practice and educational gaps in abnormal pigmentation.
Mohammad TF, Hamzavi IH.
Dermatol Clin. 2016 Jul;34(3):291-301. doi: 10.1016/j.det.2016.02.005. Review.

Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation in patients with skin of color.
Shokeen D.
Cutis. 2016 Jan;97(1):E9-E11. Review.

Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation secondary to external insult: an overview of the quantitative analysis of pigmentation. 
Lamel SA, Rahvar M, Maibach HI.
Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2013 Mar;32(1):67-71. doi: 10.3109/15569527.2012.684419. Epub 2012 Jun 6. Review.

A focused review on acne-induced and aesthetic procedure-related postinflammatory hyperpigmentation in Asians. 
Eimpunth S, Wanitphadeedecha R, Manuskiatti W.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2013 Jan;27 Suppl 1:7-18. doi: 10.1111/jdv.12050. Review.

Mechanisms underlying post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation: lessons from solar lentigo. 
Cardinali G, Kovacs D, Picardo M.
Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2012 Dec;139 Suppl 4:S148-52. doi: 10.1016/S0151-9638(12)70127-8. Review.

Hydroquinone therapy for post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation secondary to acne: not just prescribable by dermatologists. 
Chandra M, Levitt J, Pensabene CA.
Acta Derm Venereol. 2012 May;92(3):232-5. doi: 10.2340/00015555-1225. Review.

Lasers for treatment of melasma and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. 
Arora P, Sarkar R, Garg VK, Arya L.
J Cutan Aesthet Surg. 2012 Apr;5(2):93-103. doi: 10.4103/0974-2077.99436. Review.

Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation: etiologic and therapeutic considerations. 
Callender VD, St Surin-Lord S, Davis EC, Maclin M.
Am J Clin Dermatol. 2011 Apr 1;12(2):87-99. doi: 10.2165/11536930-000000000-00000. Review.

Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation: a review of the epidemiology, clinical features, and treatment options in skin of color. 
Davis EC, Callender VD.
J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2010 Jul;3(7):20-31. Review.

Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. 
Taylor S, Grimes P, Lim J, Im S, Lui H.
J Cutan Med Surg. 2009 Jul-Aug;13(4):183-91. Review.

Topical treatments for melasma and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. 
Lynde CB, Kraft JN, Lynde CW.
Skin Therapy Lett. 2006 Nov;11(9):1-6. Review.

Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation: evolving combination treatment strategies. 
Taylor SC, Burgess CM, Callender VD, Fu J, Rendon MI, Roberts WE, Shalita AR.
Cutis. 2006 Aug;78(2 Suppl 2):6-19. Review.

Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation: a common but troubling condition. 
Lacz NL, Vafaie J, Kihiczak NI, Schwartz RA.
Int J Dermatol. 2004 May;43(5):362-5. Review.

Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. 
Epstein JH.
Clin Dermatol. 1989 Apr-Jun;7(2):55-65. Review. 

 

Naevus of Ota & Ito

Naevus of Ota 2

Naevus of Ota. © DermNetNZ

Naevus of Ito 1

Naevus of Ito. © DermNetNZ

 

 

 

Comparison of clinical efficacy and complications between Q-switched alexandrite laser and Q-switched Nd:YAG laser on nevus of Ota: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Yu P, Yu N, Diao W, Yang X, Feng Y, Qi Z.
Lasers Med Sci. 2016 Apr;31(3):581-91. doi: 10.1007/s10103-016-1885-z. Epub 2016 Feb 9. Systematic review.

Dermal melanocytosis and associated disorders.
Franceschini D, Dinulos JG.
Curr Opin Pediatr. 2015 Aug;27(4):480-5. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0000000000000247. Review. 

Three cases of symmetrical nevus of Ota and a brief literature review.
Yang T, Jiang X.
Int J Dermatol. 2016 Feb 17. doi: 10.1111/ijd.13087. [Epub ahead of print]. Review. No abstract available. 

Lasers and nevus of Ota: a comprehensive review.
Shah VV, Bray FN, Aldahan AS, Mlacker S, Nouri K.
Lasers Med Sci. 2016 Jan;31(1):179-85. doi: 10.1007/s10103-015-1834-2. Epub 2015 Nov 12. Review.

Melanoma arising in a nevus of Ito: novel genetic mutations and a review of the literature on cutaneous malignant transformation of dermal melanocytosis. 
Tse JY, Walls BE, Pomerantz H, Yoon CH, Buchbinder EI, Werchniak AE, Dong F, Lian CG, Granter SR.
J Cutan Pathol. 2015 Aug 11. doi: 10.1111/cup.12568. [Epub ahead of print]. Review.

Acquired bilateral nevus of Ota-like macules (Hori nevus): etiologic and therapeutic considerations. 
Park JM, Tsao H, Tsao S.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009 Jul;61(1):88-93. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2008.10.054. Review.

Nevus of Ota in children. 
Sinha S, Cohen PJ, Schwartz RA.
Cutis. 2008 Jul;82(1):25-9. Review.

Late-onset Ito's nevus: an uncommon acquired dermal melanocytosis. 
Mataix J, López N, Haro R, González E, Angulo J, Requena L.
J Cutan Pathol. 2007 Aug;34(8):640-3. Review.

Nevus of Ota: clinical aspects and management. 
Chan HH, Kono T.
Skinmed. 2003 Mar-Apr;2(2):89-96; quiz 97-8. Review.

Are these pigmentary changes only cosmetic? Oculodermal melanocytosis (nevus of Ota). 
Mishriki YY.
Postgrad Med. 2001 Dec;110(6):43-6. Review.

Nevus of Ota. 
Tyndel FJ, Davidson GS, Bilbao JM.
Neurology. 1994 Mar;44(3 Pt 1):586. Review.

 

Exogenous ochronosis

Ochronosis 1

Ochronosis. © Waikato District Health Board

Ochronosis 2

Ochronosis. © Waikato District Health Board

 

 


Facial hyperpigmentation in skin of color: Special considerations and treatment.

Vashi NA, Wirya SA, Inyang M, Kundu RV.
Am J Clin Dermatol. 2016 Dec 9. [Epub ahead of print]. Review.

Exogenous ochronosis.
Bhattar PA, Zawar VP, Godse KV, Patil SP, Nadkarni NJ, Gautam MM.
Indian J Dermatol. 2015 Nov-Dec;60(6):537-43. doi: 10.4103/0019-5154.169122. Review.

Exogenous ochronosis: a comprehensive review of the diagnosis, epidemiology, causes, and treatments. 
Simmons BJ, Griffith RD, Bray FN, Falto-Aizpurua LA, Nouri K.
Am J Clin Dermatol. 2015 Jun;16(3):205-12. doi: 10.1007/s40257-015-0126-8. Review.

Exogenous ochronosis. An update on clinical features, causative agents and treatment options. 
Levin CY, Maibach H.
Am J Clin Dermatol. 2001;2(4):213-7. Review.

 

Periorbital hyperpigmentation
 

 

Facial hyperpigmentation in skin of color: Special considerations and treatment.
Vashi NA, Wirya SA, Inyang M, Kundu RV.
Am J Clin Dermatol. 2016 Dec 9. [Epub ahead of print]. Review.

Skin hyperpigmentation in Indian population: Insights and best practice.
Nouveau S, Agrawal D, Kohli M, Bernerd F, Misra N, Nayak CS.Indian J Dermatol. 2016 Sep-Oct;61(5):487-95. doi: 10.4103/0019-5154.190103. Review.

Infraorbital dark circles: A review of the pathogenesis, evaluation and treatment.
Vrcek I, Ozgur O, Nakra T.
J Cutan Aesthet Surg. 2016 Apr-Jun;9(2):65-72. doi: 10.4103/0974-2077.184046. Review.

Periorbital hyperpigmentation: A comprehensive review.
Sarkar R, Ranjan R, Garg S, Garg VK, Sonthalia S, Bansal S.
J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2016 Jan;9(1):49-55. Review.

Dark circles: etiology and management options.
Friedmann DP, Goldman MP.
Clin Plast Surg. 2015 Jan;42(1):33-50. doi: 10.1016/j.cps.2014.08.007. Review.

Periorbital hyperpigmentation: review of etiology, medical evaluation, and aesthetic treatment.
Roberts WE.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2014 Apr;13(4):472-82. Review.

Periocular hyperpigmentation: a review of etiology and current treatment options. 
Alsaad SM, Mikhail M.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2013 Feb;12(2):154-7. Review.

Infraorbital dark circles: definition, causes, and treatment options. 
Roh MR, Chung KY.
Dermatol Surg. 2009 Aug;35(8):1163-71. doi: 10.1111/j.1524-4725.2009.01213.x. Epub 2009 May 15. Review.

What causes dark circles under the eyes? 
Freitag FM, Cestari TF.
J Cosmet Dermatol. 2007 Sep;6(3):211-5. Review.

 

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Centre of Evidence Based Dermatology

The University of Nottingham
King's Meadow Campus
Lenton Lane
Nottingham, NG7 2NR


telephone: +44 (0) 115 823 1048
email:cebd@nottingham.ac.uk