10. Resources

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Ages and Stages Questionnaire

A caregiver-completed questionnaire that may be used by health or education professionals to detect developmental delay in the areas of fine and gross motor skills, problem solving, communication and social-emotional skills.

Cognitive skills

A set of thinking skills needed to store and process information in the mind and to think, reason and solve problems mentally.

Developmental delay

Delay in reaching expected developmental milestones in areas such as thinking, communication, movement and social-emotional skills.

Developmental disabilities

A group of severe long-term conditions that may affect an individual’s physical, intellectual or emotional development. Developmental disabilities arise early in development and may have a lifelong impact on an individual’s everyday function and their ability to understand, learn and communicate.

Fine motor skills

Movements that require the control and coordination of small muscles in the hands and feet. Fine motor skills include actions such as picking up small objects, using cutlery, writing, cutting and threading.

Gross motor skills

Larger physical actions that require the control and coordination of the arms, legs and other large body parts. Gross motor skills include sitting, crawling, walking, running and jumping.

Hand-eye coordination

Is the ability to carry out activities that require the simultaneous control of eye and hand movements, such as writing or catching a ball.


A common abbreviation for ‘intelligence quotient’. IQ is a score derived from an intelligence test that is used to measure an individual’s ability to think, reason and solve problems mentally.

Processing speed

The speed at which an individual can take in and process information in the mind.

Working memory

A cognitive skill in which an individual both stores and processes information in the mind for a short period of time.

Visuospatial awareness

Being aware of where objects are located in the space around you.


Anderson, P. J. (2014). Neuropsychological outcomes of children born very preterm.  Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine,  19 (2), 90-96. doi: 10.1016/j.siny.2013.11.012

Gathercole, S. E., Pickering, S. J., Ambridge, B., & Wearing, H. (2004). The structure of working memory from 4 to 15 years of age.  Developmental Psychology,  40(2), 177–190. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.40.2.177

Kerstjens, J. M., de Winter, A. F., Bocca-Tjeertes, I. F., ten Vergert, E. M., Reijneveld, S. A., & Bos, A. F. (2011). Developmental delay in moderately preterm-born children at school entry.  The Journal of pediatrics, 159(1), 92-98. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.12.041

Poulsen, G., Wolke, D., Kurinczuk, J. J., Boyle, E. M., Field, D., Alfirevic, Z., & Quigley, M. A. (2013). Gestational Age and Cognitive Ability in Early Childhood: a Population‐based Cohort Study.  Paediatric and perinatal epidemiology37127(4), 371-379. doi: 10.1111/ppe.12058

Learning outcomes

By completing this section you will be able:

  • to understand that children born preterm may have difficulties with IQ, processing speed, working memory, and hand-eye coordination.
  • to understand how these difficulties may impact on learning.

This resource was developed by:

We would like to thank the following people who all helped in the development of this resource:

Content authors: Samantha Johnson, Sarah Clayton, Lucy Cragg, Camilla Gilmore, Rose Griffiths, Neil Marlow, Victoria Simms.

Technical developers: Heather Wharrad, Mike Taylor, Aaron Fecowycz and Lydia Jones.

Contributors: Susannah Tucker.

Content reviewers: Professor Gaia Scerif, Professor of Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Oxford; Alison Brown (Teacher); Olivia Smith (Teacher).

Acknowledgements: With thanks to the participants of the PRISM-2 Study Stakeholder Workshop for their role in co-designing this resource.

Funding: The development of this resource was funded by Action Medical Research

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