Types of cognitive loss

Click each of the jigsaw pieces to learn a little more about these problems.

Aphasia is a disorder of language. This includes understanding or comprehension and expression (being able to say what you want to communicate). Sometimes aphasia can occur without cognitive difficulties, such as when the patient has had a stroke. Patients with aphasia can be difficult to communicate with.

Agnosia is the inability to recognise objects or people. For example, if a patient does not recognise a chair, there is no point in asking the patient to sit in their chair, as they will not understand what you are asking them to do. Other examples include not recognising food or the toilet.

Apraxia is the inability to perform purposeful activity in the absence of motor or sensory loss. For example, a patient with apraxia may find it difficult to dress or move a cup to their mouth.

Executive Function:
Executive function is about planning, judgment and making decisions. This includes initiation and maintenance of activity, and responding to changing circumstances. Related functions include abstract thought, insight and social control. These are sometimes called 'frontal lobe functions'.

A patient with loss of executive function may be unable to dress independently as they won't be able to plan, initiate or maintain the many steps required to dress. They may have poor safety awareness or difficulty controlling emotions or behaviours.

Types of cognitive loss

Dementia and cognitive loss Aphasia jigsaw piece Agnosia jigsaw piece Executive Function jigsaw piece Apraxia jigsaw piece