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An extra administration of a vaccine after an earlier (primer) dose.
disease caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.
Deoxyribonucleic acid: a self-replicating material that is present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information. DNA contains two intercoiled strands.
Ability of vaccine to prevent outcomes of interest in the ‘real world’.
% reduction in disease incidence in a vaccinated group compared to an unvaccinated group under optimal conditions (e.g. in a Randomised Controlled Trial).
A term used for people who are still unwell 12 weeks or more after having COVID-19, sometimes referred to as Post-COVID syndrome.
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, an illness caused by a coronavirus, which emerged in 2012. It continues to circulate but has relatively low infectivity.
A bacterium, virus, parasite or fungus that can cause disease within the body.
A medicine or treatment which contains no active ingredient, often known as a ‘sugar pill’ or a sham treatment. In drug and vaccine trials, it is usually given to half the trial participants, so that the efficacy of the treatment and also its side effects can be compared between the two.
A term used for people who are still unwell 12 weeks or more after having COVID-19, commonly referred to as Long-COVID.
|Pre-clinical||A stage of research that begins before clinical trials.|
|Randomised controlled trial||A study in which a number of similar people are randomly assigned to 2 (or more) groups to test a specific drug, treatment or other intervention.|
|Reusable Learning Object (RLO)|
A reusable learning object (RLO) is based on a single learning objective, comprising a stand-alone.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome, an illness caused by a coronavirus which emerged in 2002/2003. Around 800 people died before it was contained by public health measures.
Ribonucleic acid: a molecule similar to DNA. Unlike DNA, RNA is single-stranded.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the virus which causes COVID-19.
A blood clot which has travelled in the bloodstream before getting stuck and starting to block the blood flow to an organ or a limb.
All viruses – including SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 - evolve over time. When a virus replicates or makes copies of itself, it sometimes changes a little bit, which is normal for a virus. These changes are called “mutations”. A virus with one or more new mutations is referred to as a “variant” of the original virus (WHO, 2021)
|Virus||A virus is an infectious agent of small size and simple composition that can multiply only in living cells of animals, plants, or bacteria.|
With this RLO, we are not seeking to train people to be vaccinators. You can find details of training for UK vaccinators here. If you work outside of the UK you will need to seek appropriate training guidelines in your region or country.
General information about vaccination (not COVID-19 specific)
|Centers for Disease Control and Prevention|
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Vaccines & Immunizations resource.
|World Health Organization, How are vaccines developed?||
This article is part of a series of explainers on vaccine development and distribution. Learn more about vaccines - from how they work and how they're made to ensuring safety and equitable access - in WHO's Vaccines Explained series. What are the ingredients in a vaccine?
|World Health Organization, How do vaccines work?||
This article is part of a series of explainers on vaccine development and distribution. Learn more about vaccines - from how they work and how they're made to ensuring safety and equitable access - in WHO's Vaccines Explained series. Germs are all around us, both in our environment and in our bodies.
|World Health Organization, Manufacturing, safety and quality control of vaccines||
This article is part of a series of explainers on vaccine development and distribution. Learn more about vaccines - from how they work and how they're made to ensuring safety and equitable access - in WHO's Vaccines Explained series. For more information on the three phases of vaccine clinical trials.
Vaccination against COVID-19
|COVAX||Working for global equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines|
|COVID-19 Vaccine Communication Toolkit for Community-Based Organizations||Find COVID-19 toolkits on a variety of topics to help you successfully communicate with your audiences.|
|COVID-19 Vaccine Tracker||ECDC's COVID-19 Vaccine Tracker is an interactive dashboard which provides an overview of the progress in the roll-out of COVID-19 vaccines in adults across EU/EEA Member States.|
Detailed information about different COVID-19 vaccines
|Four types of COVID-19 vaccines: here’s how they work (YouTube)|
The fight against COVID-19 has seen vaccine development move at record speed, with more than 170 different vaccines in trials. But how are they different from each other and how will they protect us against the disease?
Keeping up with COVID-19 vaccines can be a daunting task, whether they are authorized for use or still undergoing clinical trials. To help people keep up, Yale Medicine mapped out a comparison of the five most prominent COVID-19 vaccines.
|World Health Organization Vaccine Safety Net|
Urged by governments, key non-governmental organizations and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), WHO initiated, in 2003, the Vaccine Safety Net Project (VSN).
The mission of the Vaccine Safety Net is to help internet users find reliable vaccine safety information tailored to their needs.
|World Health Organization, The different types of COVID-19 vaccines||
As of December 2020, there were over 200 vaccine candidates for COVID-19 being developed. Of these, at least 52 candidate vaccines were in human trials. There were several others in phase I/II, which subsequently entered phase III (for more information on the clinical trial phases, see part three of our Vaccine Explained series).
|World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Vaccines||
This page answers the most frequently asked questions about COVID-19 vaccine safety. It includes details of all vaccines currently approved by the WHO.
Encouraging vaccination or overcoming resistance to vaccination
|An easy decision: COVID-19 vaccination stories||Louis Laleye is a physiotherapist at a Royal Star & Garter care home in High Wycombe. He caught COVID-19 in March 2020 and later took part in the antibody trial.|
|British Red Cross - Vaccine Voices||Read people’s stories about getting a Covid-19 vaccine, what worries they had, what made them feel more confident and their hopes for the future.|
Four national religious leaders joined Eboo Patel to discuss the crucial role that faith communities are playing in fostering far reaching and equitable vaccinations against the COVID-19 pandemic.
|International Coalition of Medicines Regulatory Authorities (ICMRA)|
ICMRA statement about confidence in vaccine safety and effectiveness (for healthcare professionals).
|The COVID-19 Vaccine Communication Handbook||A team of renowned scientific experts has joined forces from across the world to help fight the spread of misinformation about the COVID-19 vaccines, which hold the key to beating the deadly pandemic and releasing countries from debilitating lockdown restrictions.|
|The Inter-Faith Network for the United Kingdom - COVID-19 and vaccination||
This page contains information and guidance from faith communities about COVID-19 vaccination.
COVID-19, the virus and disease
|Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): How is it transmitted?||World Health Organisation resource exploring how Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is transmitted.|
|SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Infection Process (YouTube)|
In this animation, a process in which a multitude of actors intervene (Enzymes, polysaccharides, cell organelles ...) is exposed, in a very simplified way.
|The Independent SAGE Report 30: Maintaining adherence to protective behaviours during vaccination roll-out (PDF)||
The Independent SAGE Report 30: Maintaining adherence to protective behaviours during vaccination roll-out - Summary and recommendations
Detailed information for vaccinators
|Training and Education for COVID-19 Vaccination | CDC|
COVID-19 vaccination training and education materials for healthcare professionals, pharmacists, and other healthcare staff.
|Training recommendations for COVID-19 vaccinators|
With authorised vaccines against COVID-19 being available and a considerable number of people requiring vaccination, a substantial workforce who can be mobilised quickly to give the vaccine safely is needed.
The learning objective for this resource is:
To understand why the COVID-19 vaccine is important for individual and societal health.
To meet this learning objective, the resource covers:
- Why vaccines are important for public health.
- How vaccines work.
- How vaccines are developed.
- What is COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2.
- Personal stories of acute and long-COVID.
- What we know about the COVID-19 vaccine (development, dose, safety, effectiveness).
To ensure appropriate promotion of the vaccine in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, the resource also includes:
- Why COVID-19 vaccines should be combined with other protective measures.
- How we can optimise vaccine uptake.
Please provide your name and click the " Create Certificate" to generate your PDF certificate.
- Professor Holly Blake, Health Psychologist.
- Dr Wendy Jones, Occupational Health Specialist & Nurse.
- Aaron Fecowycz, Learning Technologist.
This RLO has been developed by the University of Nottingham and is free to use. If you distribute this resource, or refer to information within it, please attribute this to the developers and use the following citation:
Blake H, Jones W, Fecowycz A. COVID-19 Vaccine Education (CoVE package): The importance of the COVID-19 vaccine for individual and societal health. The University of Nottingham. Version 2, 03 November 2022.
Available at: https://www.nottingham.ac.uk/helmopen/rlos/practice-learning/public-health/CoVE/ (last updated 03 November 2022).
Blake, H.; Fecowycz, A.; Starbuck, H.; Jones, W. COVID-19 Vaccine Education (CoVE) for Health and Care Workers to Facilitate Global Promotion of the COVID-19 Vaccines. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022,19, 653. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020653
This RLO was developed using ASPIRE methodology. Content was developed in consultation with, and peer reviewed by, experts in diverse areas of health and care, including virology, medicine, nursing and allied health, public health, occupational health, health psychology and the behavioural sciences.
Technical support has been provided by the Health e-Learning and Media Team (HELM) at the University of Nottingham.
Sala Kamkosi Khulumula, Critical Care Nurse & Vaccinator, UK / Malawi.
- Prof Jonathan Ball, Virologist, UK
- Prof Janet Daly, Virologist, UK
- Prof Chris Denning, Biologist and Director of the Biodiscovery Institute, UK
- Prof Kavita Vedhara, Health Psychologist, UK
- Prof Carol Hall, Nurse Educator & Vaccinator, UK
- Roberta Rakove, Public Health Strategist, Chicago, Illinois, USA
- Dr Graham Johnson, Consultant Physician (Emergency Care), UK
- Dr Neil Jackson, Consultant Physician (Community), UK
- Dr Sharon Homan, Epidemiologist, Chicago, Illinois, USA
- Dr Suhathai Tosangwarn, Nurse Educator, Thailand
- Dr Amani Al-Oraibi, Pharmacist, Jordan
- Dr Basharat Hussain, Sociologist, Lahore, Pakistan
- Dr Marco Bardus, Digital Health Communications Researcher, Lebanon
- Shanaz Pottinger, Inclusive Designer, UK
- Dr Natalia Stanulewicz, Psychologist, UK
- Dr Anirban Banerjee, Allied health professional, UK
- Duncan Ritchie, Allied health professional, UK
- Tanya Stacey, Head of Occupational Health & Vaccinator, UK
- Sala Kamkosi Khulumula, Critical Care Nurse & Vaccinator, UK / Malawi
- Mehmet Yildirim, Nurse, Turkey
- Lydia Briggs, Nurse, UK
- Dawn Ritchie, Nurse Educator, UK
- Melyza Perdana, Nurse Educator, Indonesia
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