Skip to main content

CoVE Package: COVID-19 Vaccine Education
The importance of the COVID-19 vaccine for individual and societal health

14. Resources

Please select any of the following buttons to view further information related to this learning resource.


Booster dose

An extra administration of a vaccine after an earlier (primer) dose.


disease caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.


Deoxyribonucleic acid: a self-replicating material that is present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information. DNA contains two intercoiled strands.


Ability of vaccine to prevent outcomes of interest in the ‘real world’.


% reduction in disease incidence in a vaccinated group compared to an unvaccinated group under optimal conditions (e.g. in a Randomised Controlled Trial).


A term used for people who are still unwell 12 weeks or more after having COVID-19, sometimes referred to as Post-COVID syndrome.


Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, an illness caused by a coronavirus, which emerged in 2012. It continues to circulate but has relatively low infectivity.


A bacterium, virus, parasite or fungus that can cause disease within the body.


A medicine or treatment which contains no active ingredient, often known as a ‘sugar pill’ or a sham treatment. In drug and vaccine trials, it is usually given to half the trial participants, so that the efficacy of the treatment and also its side effects can be compared between the two.

Post-COVID syndrome

A term used for people who are still unwell 12 weeks or more after having COVID-19, commonly referred to as Long-COVID.

Pre-clinicalA stage of research that begins before clinical trials.
Randomised controlled trialA study in which a number of similar people are randomly assigned to 2 (or more) groups to test a specific drug, treatment or other intervention.
Reusable Learning Object (RLO)

A reusable learning object (RLO) is based on a single learning objective, comprising a stand-alone.

  1. Presentation: presenting the concept, fact, process, principle or procedure to be understood by the learner in order to support the learning objective
  2. Activity: something the learner must do to engage with the content in order to better understand it
  3. Assessment: a way in which the learner can apply their understanding and test their mastery of the content
  4. Links: external resources to reinforce the message and aid understanding

Severe acute respiratory syndrome, an illness caused by a coronavirus which emerged in 2002/2003. Around 800 people died before it was contained by public health measures.


Ribonucleic acid: a molecule similar to DNA. Unlike DNA, RNA is single-stranded.


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the virus which causes COVID-19.


A blood clot which has travelled in the bloodstream before getting stuck and starting to block the blood flow to an organ or a limb.


All viruses – including SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 - evolve over time. When a virus replicates or makes copies of itself, it sometimes changes a little bit, which is normal for a virus. These changes are called “mutations”. A virus with one or more new mutations is referred to as a “variant” of the original virus (WHO, 2021)

VirusA virus is an infectious agent of small size and simple composition that can multiply only in living cells of animals, plants, or bacteria.


With this RLO, we are not seeking to train people to be vaccinators. You can find details of training for UK vaccinators here. If you work outside of the UK you will need to seek appropriate training guidelines in your region or country.

General information about vaccination (not COVID-19 specific)

ResourceResource Description
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Vaccines & Immunizations resource.

World Health Organization, How are vaccines developed?

This article is part of a series of explainers on vaccine development and distribution. Learn more about vaccines - from how they work and how they're made to ensuring safety and equitable access - in WHO's Vaccines Explained series. What are the ingredients in a vaccine?

World Health Organization, How do vaccines work?

This article is part of a series of explainers on vaccine development and distribution. Learn more about vaccines - from how they work and how they're made to ensuring safety and equitable access - in WHO's Vaccines Explained series. Germs are all around us, both in our environment and in our bodies.

World Health Organization, Manufacturing, safety and quality control of vaccines

This article is part of a series of explainers on vaccine development and distribution. Learn more about vaccines - from how they work and how they're made to ensuring safety and equitable access - in WHO's Vaccines Explained series. For more information on the three phases of vaccine clinical trials.

Vaccination against COVID-19

ResourceResource Description
COVAXWorking for global equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines
COVID-19 Vaccine Communication Toolkit for Community-Based OrganizationsFind COVID-19 toolkits on a variety of topics to help you successfully communicate with your audiences.
COVID-19 Vaccine TrackerECDC's COVID-19 Vaccine Tracker is an interactive dashboard which provides an overview of the progress in the roll-out of COVID-19 vaccines in adults across EU/EEA Member States.

Detailed information about different COVID-19 vaccines

ResourceResource Description
Four types of COVID-19 vaccines: here’s how they work (YouTube)

The fight against COVID-19 has seen vaccine development move at record speed, with more than 170 different vaccines in trials. But how are they different from each other and how will they protect us against the disease?

Vaccine Comparison

Keeping up with COVID-19 vaccines can be a daunting task, whether they are authorized for use or still undergoing clinical trials. To help people keep up, Yale Medicine mapped out a comparison of the five most prominent COVID-19 vaccines.

World Health Organization Vaccine Safety Net

Urged by governments, key non-governmental organizations and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), WHO initiated, in 2003, the Vaccine Safety Net Project (VSN).

The mission of the Vaccine Safety Net is to help internet users find reliable vaccine safety information tailored to their needs.

World Health Organization, The different types of COVID-19 vaccines

As of December 2020, there were over 200 vaccine candidates for COVID-19 being developed. Of these, at least 52 candidate vaccines were in human trials. There were several others in phase I/II, which subsequently entered phase III (for more information on the clinical trial phases, see part three of our Vaccine Explained series).

World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Vaccines

This page answers the most frequently asked questions about COVID-19 vaccine safety. It includes details of all vaccines currently approved by the WHO.

Encouraging vaccination or overcoming resistance to vaccination

ResourceResource Description
An easy decision: COVID-19 vaccination storiesLouis Laleye is a physiotherapist at a Royal Star & Garter care home in High Wycombe. He caught COVID-19 in March 2020 and later took part in the antibody trial.
British Red Cross - Vaccine VoicesRead people’s stories about getting a Covid-19 vaccine, what worries they had, what made them feel more confident and their hopes for the future.
Interfaith America

Four national religious leaders joined Eboo Patel to discuss the crucial role that faith communities are playing in fostering far reaching and equitable vaccinations against the COVID-19 pandemic.

International Coalition of Medicines Regulatory Authorities (ICMRA)

ICMRA statement about confidence in vaccine safety and effectiveness (for healthcare professionals).

The COVID-19 Vaccine Communication HandbookA team of renowned scientific experts has joined forces from across the world to help fight the spread of misinformation about the COVID-19 vaccines, which hold the key to beating the deadly pandemic and releasing countries from debilitating lockdown restrictions.
The Inter-Faith Network for the United Kingdom - COVID-19 and vaccination

This page contains information and guidance from faith communities about COVID-19 vaccination.

COVID-19, the virus and disease

ResourceResource Description
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): How is it transmitted?World Health Organisation resource exploring how Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is transmitted.
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Infection Process (YouTube)

In this animation, a process in which a multitude of actors intervene (Enzymes, polysaccharides, cell organelles ...) is exposed, in a very simplified way.

The Independent SAGE Report 30: Maintaining adherence to protective behaviours during vaccination roll-out (PDF)

The Independent SAGE Report 30: Maintaining adherence to protective behaviours during vaccination roll-out - Summary and recommendations

Detailed information for vaccinators

ResourceResource Description
Training and Education for COVID-19 Vaccination | CDC

COVID-19 vaccination training and education materials for healthcare professionals, pharmacists, and other healthcare staff.

Training recommendations for COVID-19 vaccinators

With authorised vaccines against COVID-19 being available and a considerable number of people requiring vaccination, a substantial workforce who can be mobilised quickly to give the vaccine safely is needed.

Learning outcomes

The learning objective for this resource is:

To understand why the COVID-19 vaccine is important for individual and societal health.

To meet this learning objective, the resource covers:

  • Why vaccines are important for public health.
  • How vaccines work.
  • How vaccines are developed.
  • What is COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2.
  • Personal stories of acute and long-COVID.
  • What we know about the COVID-19 vaccine (development, dose, safety, effectiveness).

To ensure appropriate promotion of the vaccine in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, the resource also includes:

  • Why COVID-19 vaccines should be combined with other protective measures.
  • How we can optimise vaccine uptake.


Please provide your name and click the " Create Certificate" to generate your PDF certificate.


Project Leads

  • Professor Holly Blake, Health Psychologist.
  • Dr Wendy Jones, Occupational Health Specialist & Nurse.
  • Aaron Fecowycz, Learning Technologist.


This RLO has been developed by the University of Nottingham and is free to use. If you distribute this resource, or refer to information within it, please attribute this to the developers and use the following citation:

Blake H, Jones W, Fecowycz A. COVID-19 Vaccine Education (CoVE package): The importance of the COVID-19 vaccine for individual and societal health. The University of Nottingham. Version 2, 03 November 2022.

Available at: (last updated 03 November 2022).

Journal article:

Blake, H.; Fecowycz, A.; Starbuck, H.; Jones, W. COVID-19 Vaccine Education (CoVE) for Health and Care Workers to Facilitate Global Promotion of the COVID-19 Vaccines. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022,19, 653.


This RLO was developed using ASPIRE methodology. Content was developed in consultation with, and peer reviewed by, experts in diverse areas of health and care, including virology, medicine, nursing and allied health, public health, occupational health, health psychology and the behavioural sciences.

Technical Support

Technical support has been provided by the Health e-Learning and Media Team (HELM) at the University of Nottingham.


Sala Kamkosi Khulumula, Critical Care Nurse & Vaccinator, UK / Malawi.

Peer-Review Panel

  • Prof Jonathan Ball, Virologist, UK
  • Prof Janet Daly, Virologist, UK
  • Prof Chris Denning, Biologist and Director of the Biodiscovery Institute, UK
  • Prof Kavita Vedhara, Health Psychologist, UK
  • Prof Carol Hall, Nurse Educator & Vaccinator, UK
  • Roberta Rakove, Public Health Strategist, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  • Dr Graham Johnson, Consultant Physician (Emergency Care), UK
  • Dr Neil Jackson, Consultant Physician (Community), UK
  • Dr Sharon Homan, Epidemiologist, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  • Dr Suhathai Tosangwarn, Nurse Educator, Thailand
  • Dr Amani Al-Oraibi, Pharmacist, Jordan
  • Dr Basharat Hussain, Sociologist, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Dr Marco Bardus, Digital Health Communications Researcher, Lebanon
  • Shanaz Pottinger, Inclusive Designer, UK
  • Dr Natalia Stanulewicz, Psychologist, UK
  • Dr Anirban Banerjee, Allied health professional, UK
  • Duncan Ritchie, Allied health professional, UK
  • Tanya Stacey, Head of Occupational Health & Vaccinator, UK
  • Sala Kamkosi Khulumula, Critical Care Nurse & Vaccinator, UK / Malawi
  • Mehmet Yildirim, Nurse, Turkey
  • Lydia Briggs, Nurse, UK
  • Dawn Ritchie, Nurse Educator, UK
  • Melyza Perdana, Nurse Educator, Indonesia

Learning Object Copyright and Terms of Use

All Learning Objects developed by the University of Nottingham School of Health Sciences, and their aggregate parts (e.g. text, animations), with the exception of third party embedded content (such as YouTube Videos), are copyright of the School of Health Sciences, University of Nottingham. Learning Objects are available for use under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 3.0 Unported License and the conditions below.

Terms of Use

Private individuals, and publicly-funded educational and other institutions, may link to and use the Learning Objects on this site without restriction for non-commercial educational purposes. Use of any Learning Objects for any commercial purpose, or by any profit-making commercial entity, is not permitted without our express permission. If you wish to use a Learning Object for any commercial, revenue-generating or non-educational purpose, you must contact us to negotiate terms of use and payment.

We much prefer that you use this and other Learning Objects by linking to them on this website as:

  • this ensures you're always using the most up-to-date version
  • we gain data on usage of the Learning Objects, from access statistics and user feedback forms

Local circumstances, such as network security policies, may constrain your ability to link to external sites, or may impair the usability of our objects. If you're unable to run our Learning Objects 'from source' for these or other reasons, please contact us with a brief explanation of your circumstances and we may provide you with specified Learning Objects as an IMS Content Package.


Modification to adapt Learning Objects to local circumstances is permitted, with the following restrictions:

  1. The modified version must clearly display the University of Nottingham logo, and the School copyright notice.
  2. The modified version must not be distributed outside the modifying institution without the express permission of the School.


If you have any queries about our Learning Objects, please contact


Please use the attribution below if you wish to refer to our learning objects. If you use Firefox, you can install the useful OpenAttribute add-on to allow you to easily copy and reference these and other materials marked as Creative Commons.

Creative Commons logo Learning Objects for Healthcare by School of Health Sciences, University of Nottingham is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License.

Document Top