Natural Sciences
   
   
  

Chemistry, Physics and Mathematical Sciences

Natural Sciences is a multidisciplinary degree which allows you to study three subjects in the first year and continue with two subjects in the second and third year. The combination of subjects which you study in the first year allows you to find out what each subject is like at university before you specialise further. You will also have the opportunity to explore specialist areas through optional modules as you progress through the course. Both of the subjects taken beyond the first year will be studied to degree level. This degree aims to provide you with a broad knowledge and understanding of your chosen areas of science, as well as experience of interdisciplinary study.

Year One

You will study 40 credits of each subject from your chosen three-subject pathway.

Chemistry


40 compulsory credits:

Fundamental Chemistry Theory and Practical (40 credits, full year)
This module shows how trends in chemical properties can be related to the structure of the Periodic Table and rationalise descriptive inorganic chemistry. To provide a fundamental understanding of the basics of organic chemistry, including nomenclature, molecular structure and bonding, stereochemistry and the chemical reactivity of common functional groups and reaction types through an understanding of their electronic properties. To provide an introduction to fundamental physical aspects of chemistry, which underpins all areas of Chemistry - emphasis will be placed on being able to apply knowledge, especially in solving problems. To introduce a range of chemical techniques appropriate to the study of inorganic, organic and physical chemistry at first year level, which will act as a foundation for more advanced work in subsequent years.
 
 

Physics


40 compulsory credits:

From Newton to Einstein (40 credits, full year)
This module aims to provide students with a rigorous understanding of the core concepts of physics at an introductory level. The module underpins all other physics modules in all years.
 
 

Mathematical Sciences


40 compulsory credits:

Analytical and Computational Foundations (20 credits, full year)
This module introduces students to a broad range of core mathematical concepts and techniques. It has three components.
  • Mathematical reasoning (the language of mathematics, the need for rigour, and methods of proof).
  • The computer package MATLAB and its applications.
  • Elementary analysis.
 
Calculus and Linear Algebra (20 credits, full year)

The module consolidates core GCE mathematical topics in the differential and integral calculus of a function of a single variable and used to solving some classes of differential equations. Basic theory is extended to more advanced topics in the calculus of several variables. In addition, the basic concepts of complex numbers, vector and matrix algebra are established and extended to provide an introduction to vector spaces. An emphasis in the module is to develop general skills and confidence in applying the methods of calculus and developing techiniques and ideas that are widely applicable and used in subsequent modules.

Major topics are:

  • differential and integral calculus of a single variable;
  • differential equations;
  • differential calculus of several variables;
  • multiple integrals;
  • complex numbers;
  • matrix algebra;
  • vector algebra and vector spaces.
 
 

 

Year Two

You will continue on a pathway comprising of two of your first year subjects. You will take 60 credits of modules from each subject and greater emphasis will be put on studying outside of formal classes.

Chemistry


40 compulsory credits:

Core Laboratory Work 'N' (20 credits, full year)
This module builds on the practical, analytical and communication skills acquired in the first year and introduces more advanced experiments across inorganic, organic and physical chemistry (note – students choose 2 of the 3 from Inorganic, Organic and Physical Chemistry). Increasing use is made of spectroscopic and other analytical techniques in the characterisation of compounds. More detailed laboratory reports will be required. Each laboratory component is a non-compensatable course element. In order to pass the course students must attain a mark of at least 40% in each laboratory component (i.e. inorganic laboratory practical, organic laboratory practical, physical laboratory practical). This policy is in place so that students who proceed to the following year have an acceptable level of laboratory experience, taking into account both practical achievement and the safety of themselves, fellow students and staff.
 
Intermediate Inorganic Chemistry (10 credits, full year)
This module aims to survey the classical and new chemistry of the main group elements. To use group theory as a tool in the analysis of vibrational spectra in inorganic chemistry. To give a concise introduction to the organometallic chemistry of the transition metals. To use multinuclear NMR spectroscopy as a tool for the characterisation of molecules.
 
Principles in Analytical Chemistry (10 credits, Autumn semester)
 The module introduces the basic ideas of analytical chemistry, outlining general types of analytical problem, the main types of instrumentation used for separation and detection of analytes, and statistical treatment of analytical results. All principles will be illustrated by relevant recent examples from the literature.
 

 

20 compulsory credits from your chosen subpathway:

Organic subpathway

  • Intermediate Organic Spectroscopy and Stereochemistry (10 credits, Autumn semester)
The module provides both a theoretical description of modern spectroscopic techniques (NMR, IR, and mass spectrometry) for structural analysis of organic and biological molecules and practical applications of these techniques in problem solving. Aspects of the stereochemistry of bio-organic molecules are covered, including conformational analysis and stereocontrol in bio-organic reactions.
 
  • Intermediate Synthetic Organic Chemistry (10 credits, Spring semester)
The module is divided into two parts: (a) Functional group chemistry: synthetic transformations of alcohols, amines, carbonyls, and alkenes, and how these transformations are used to synthesise complex molecules such as natural products or pharmaceutical agents. (b) Synthesis: Introduction to retrosynthetic analysis and synthesis of organic molecules using a selection of pharmaceutical agents as examples. Formative feedback is given on the material in this module at the associated workshops. Summative feedback is provided after the exam by the module convenor.
 

 

Physical subpathway

  • Intermediate Spectroscopy and Quantum Chemistry (10 credits, Autumn semester)
  • Intermediate Physical Chemistry (10 credits, Spring semester)
 

Physics


60 compulsory credits:

Compulsory with Biological Sciences

  • Classical Fields (20 credits, full year)
In the module From Newton to Einstein, you learnt about the idea of a field a quantity which is defined at every point in space. In this module, the description of fields will be extended by introducing the mathematics of vector calculus. The module will begin with an introduction to vector calculus, illustrated in the context of the flow of ideal (non-viscous) fluids. The math­ematics will then be used to provide a framework for describing, understanding and using the laws of electromagnetism. We discuss how electric and magnetic fields are related to each other and to electrical charges and electrical currents. The macroscopic description of electric fields inside dielectric materials and magnetic fields inside magnetizable materials will be described, including the boundary conditions that apply at material interfaces. The last section of the module will discuss Maxwells equations of electrodynamics and how they lead to the vector wave equation for electromagnetic waves.
 
  • Experimental Techniques and Instrumentation (20 credits, full year)

In this module students will receive:

  • an introduction to the the basic techniques and equipment used in experimental physics
  • training in the analysis and interpretation of experimental data
  • a basic practical introduction to geometrical and physical optics
  • opportunities to observe phenomena discussed in theory modules
  • training in the skills of record keeping and writing scientific reports
 
  • The Quantum World (20 credits, full year)
This module will provide an introduction to the theory and elementary applications of quantum mechanics, a theory that is one of the key achievements of 20th century physics. Quantum mechanics is an elegant theoretical construct that is both beautiful and mysterious. Some of the predictions of quantum mechanics are wholly counter-intuitive and there are aspects of it that are not properly understood but it has been tested experimentally for over 50 years and, wherever predictions can be made, they agree with experiment.
 

 

Compulsory with Mathematical Sciences

  • Experimental Techniques and Instrumentation (20 credits, full year)

In this module students will receive:

  • an introduction to the the basic techniques and equipment used in experimental physics
  • training in the analysis and interpretation of experimental data
  • a basic practical introduction to geometrical and physical optics
  • opportunities to observe phenomena discussed in theory modules
  • training in the skills of record keeping and writing scientific reports
 
Optics and Electromagnetism (20 credits, full year)
The first half of the module will focus on optics: the study of light. Topics to be covered will include geometrical optics, wave description of light, interference and diffraction and optical interferometry. There will be a small number of practical sessions illustrating the ideas developed. The second half of the module will cover various aspects of electromagnetism including the treatment of dielectric and magnetic media, the propagation of electromagnetic waves and various techniques for the solution of electromagnetic problems.
 
  • Thermal and Statistical Physics (20 credits, full year)

Macroscopic systems exhibit behaviour that is quite different from that of their microscopic constituents studied in isolation. New physics emerges from the interplay of many interacting degrees of freedom. In this module you will learn about the important physical properties of matter and the two main approaches to their description. One, thermodynamics, treats macroscopically relevant degrees of freedom (temperature, pressure and so on) and find relations between these and the fundamental laws which govern them, independent of their microscopic structure. The other approach, statistical mechanics, links the macroscopically relevant properties to the microphysics by replacing the detailed microscopic dynamics with a statistical description. The common feature of both of these methods is the introduction of two macroscopic quantities, temperature and entropy, that have no microscopic meaning.

 
 

Mathematical Sciences


40 compulsory credits:

Modelling with Differential Equations (20 credits, full year)
This course aims to provide students with tools which enable them to develop and analyse linear and nonlinear mathematical models based on ordinary and partial differential equations. Furthermore, it aims to introduce students to the fundamental mathematical concepts required to model the flow of liquids and gases and to apply the resulting theory to model physical situations. This course leads to further study of mathematical models in medicine and biology and fluid mechanics. It also provides a foundation for further study of differential equations.
 
Vector Calculus (10 credits, Autumn semester)
This course aims to give students a sound grounding in the application of both differential and integral calculus to vectors, and to apply vector calculus methods and separation of variables to the solution of partial differential equations. The course is an important pre-requisite for a wide range of other courses in Applied Mathematics.
 
Differential Equations and Fourier Analysis (10 credits, Spring semester)
This course aims to introduce standard methods of solution for linear ordinary and partial differential equations and to introduce the idea and practice of Fourier series and integral transforms. The mathematical methods taught in this module find wide application across a range of courses in applied mathematics.
 

 

20 compulsory credits from your chosen subpathway:

Modelling 1 subpathway

  • Introduction to Scientific Computation (20 credits, full year)
This module introduces basic techniques in numerical methods and numerical analysis which can be used to generate approximate solutions to problems that may not be amenable to analysis. Specific topics include:
  • Implementing algorithms in Matlab;
  • Discussion of errors (including rounding errors);
  • Iterative methods for nonlinear equations (simple iteration, bisection, Newton, convergence);
  • Gaussian elimination, matrix factorisation, and pivoting;
  • Iterative methods for linear systems, matrix norms, convergence, Jacobi, Gauss-Siedel.
  • Interpolation (Lagrange polynomials, orthogonal polynomials, splines)
  • Numerical differentiation & integration (Difference formulae, Richardson extrapolation, simple and composite quadrature rules)
  • Introduction to numerical ODEs (Euler and Runge-Kutta methods, consistency, stability) 
 


Modelling 2 subpathway

  • Introduction to Mathematical Physics (20 credits, full year)
This course develops Newtonian mechanics into the more powerful formulations due to Lagrange and Hamilton and introduces the basic structure of quantum mechanics. The course provides the foundation for a wide range of more advanced courses in mathematical physics.
 
 

 

Year Three

You will continue with the same two subjects studied in the second year, taking 50 credits in each. Alongside subject-specific study, you will undertake a 20-credit synoptic module which aims to tie together the subjects you are studying through an interdisciplinary group project.

Chemistry


30 compulsory credits:

  • Natural Sciences Synoptic Module (20 credits, full year)
  • Advanced Laboratory Techniques 'N' (10 credits, full year)
This course aims to teach advanced experimental techniques in chemistry. To provide experience in the recording, analysis and reporting of physical data. To put into practice the methods of accessing, assessing and critically appraising the chemical literature.
 

 

40 compulsory credits from your chosen subpathway:

Organic subpathway

  • Communicating Chemistry (10 credits, full year)
A classroom-based module for learning key skills including communication, presentation, team-working, active listening, time management and prioritisation. Increased transferable skills which will enhance employability and confidence. Provision of classroom experience if considering teaching as a potential career.
 
  • Bioinorganic and Metal Co-ordination Chemistry (10 credits, Autumn semester)
The aim of this module is to provide you with an understanding of coordination chemistry in the context of macrocyclic, supramolecular and bioinorganic chemistry and its applications in metal extraction and synthesis. You will gain an appreciation of the importance of metals in biological systems, and be able to explain the relationship between the structure of the active centres of metallo-proteins and enzymes and their biological functions. The module is assessed by a two-hour written exam.
 
  • Chemical Biology and Enzymes (10 credits, Autumn semester)
Discover the foundations of enzymological, chemical and molecular biological techniques needed to probe cellular processes and catalysis at the forefront of Chemical Biology research. By the end of the module you will understand the basic principles of protein expression, mutagenesis and purification, yeast two and three hybrid technology, protein NMR and Crystallography among other topics. There will be one and half hours of lectures a week.
 
  • Organometallic and Asymmetric Synthesis (10 credits, Autumn semester)
This module will introduce you to a range of reagents and synthetic methodology. You will learn how to describe how it is applied to the synthesis of organic target molecules. By the end of the module you will know how the use of protecting groups can be used to enable complex molecule synthesis and how modern palladium-mediated cross-coupling reactions can be used to synthesise useful organic molecules. Your problem-solving and written communication skills will be developed.
 
  • Protein Folding and Biospectroscopy (10 credits, Autumn semester)
This module will develop an understanding of protein structure, stability, design and methods of structural analysis. In addition you will understand the protein folding problem and experimental approaches to the analysis of protein folding kinetics and the application of site-directed mutagenesis. You will also be expected to develop a number of spectroscopic experimental techniques to probe protein structures. There will be two hours of lectures a week.
 
  • Catalysis (10 credits, Spring semester)
This module aims to provide a framework for understanding the action of heterogeneous catalysts in terms of adsorption/desorption processes and for understanding catalyst promotion in terms of chemical and structural phenomenon and also describes a wide variety of homogeneous catalytic processes based on organo-transition metal chemistry.
 
  • Topics in Inorganic Chemistry (10 credits, Spring semester)
This module covers inorganic mechanisms and the overarching fundamental principles of greener and sustainable chemistry as applied to processes, inorganic reaction mechanisms, and discussion on the theme of greener and sustainable chemistry
 
Pericyclic Chemistry and Reactive Intermediates (10 credits, Spring semester)
Use of frontier molecular orbital analysis to explain and predict stereochemical and regiochemical outcomes of pericyclic reactions (Woodward-Hoffmann rules etc). Examples will be drawn from Diels-Alder reactions, cycloadditions [4+2] and [2+2], [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangements (eg Claisen and Cope), [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangements (eg Wittig and Mislow-Evans). Generation and use of reactive intermediates in synthesis (ie radicals, carbenes, nitrenes).
 

 

Physical subpathway

  • Communicating Chemistry (10 credits, full year)
A classroom-based module for learning key skills including communication, presentation, team-working, active listening, time management and prioritisation. Increased transferable skills which will enhance employability and confidence. Provision of classroom experience if considering teaching as a potential career.
 
  • Bioinorganic and Metal Co-ordination Chemistry (10 credits, Autumn semester)
The aim of this module is to provide you with an understanding of coordination chemistry in the context of macrocyclic, supramolecular and bioinorganic chemistry and its applications in metal extraction and synthesis. You will gain an appreciation of the importance of metals in biological systems, and be able to explain the relationship between the structure of the active centres of metallo-proteins and enzymes and their biological functions. The module is assessed by a two-hour written exam.
 
  • Chemical Bonding and Reactivity (10 credits, Autumn semester)
To provide a fundamental understanding of molecular structure and of the requirements for reactivity. To introduce modern electronic structure theory and demonstrate how it can be applied to determine properties such as molecular structure, spectroscopy and reactivity.
 
  • Protein Folding and Biospectroscopy (10 credits, Autumn semester)
This module will develop an understanding of protein structure, stability, design and methods of structural analysis. In addition you will understand the protein folding problem and experimental approaches to the analysis of protein folding kinetics and the application of site-directed mutagenesis. You will also be expected to develop a number of spectroscopic experimental techniques to probe protein structures. There will be two hours of lectures a week.
 
  • Catalysis (10 credits, Spring semester)
This module aims to provide a framework for understanding the action of heterogeneous catalysts in terms of adsorption/desorption processes and for understanding catalyst promotion in terms of chemical and structural phenomenon and also describes a wide variety of homogeneous catalytic processes based on organo-transition metal chemistry.
 
  • Lasers in Chemistry (10 credits, Spring semester)
A general introduction to lasers, including laser radiation and its properties will be given, leading to why lasers have such widespread uses in Chemistry. The bulk of the module is devoted to selected applications, which will include some of: atmospheric measurements; combustion; photochemistry and synthesis; chemical kinetics; spectroscopic studies of isolated molecules (stable and reactive); studies of van der Waals complexes; studies of small metal clusters and nanoparticles; time-resolved studies.
 
Solids, Interfaces and Surfaces (10 credits, Spring semester)
This course aims to teach the relationship between structure and properties of solids, structure of Solids and characterisation. It aims to teach a general introduction to Interfaces and Surfaces.
 
Topics in Inorganic Chemistry (10 credits, Spring semester)
This module covers inorganic mechanisms and the overarching fundamental principles of greener and sustainable chemistry as applied to processes, inorganic reaction mechanisms, and discussion on the theme of greener and sustainable chemistry
 
 

Physics


50 compulsory credits:

  • Natural Sciences Synoptic Module (20 credits, full year)
  • Physics Project (10 credits, Autumn semester)
  • Atoms, Photons and Fundamental Particles (20 credits, full year)
This module will introduce students to the physics of atoms, nuclei and the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions. The module will also develop the quantum mechanical description of these. Topics to be covered are:
  • Approximation techniques first order perturbation theory, degeneracies, second order perturbation theory, transition rates, time-dependent perturbation theory, Fermi's golden rule
  • Particle Physics protons and neutrons, antiparticles, particle accelerators and scattering experiments, conservation laws, neutrinos, leptons, baryons and hadrons, the quark model and the strong interaction, weak interactions, standard model
  • Introduction to atomic physics review of simple model of hydrogen atom, Fermi statistics and Pauli principle, aufbau principle, hydrogenic atoms, exchange, fine structure and hyperfine interactions, dipole interaction, selection rules and transition rates
  • Lasers optical polarization and photons, optical cavities, population inversions, Bose statistics and stimulated emission, Einstein A and B coefficients
  • Nuclear Physics Radioactivity, decay processes, alpha, beta and gamma emission, detectors, stability curves and binding energies, nuclear fission, fusion, liquid drop and shell models.
 

 

20 compulsory credits from your chosen subpathway:

Compulsory with Biological Sciences

Thermal and Statistical Physics (20 credits, full year)

Macroscopic systems exhibit behaviour that is quite different from that of their microscopic constituents studied in isolation. New physics emerges from the interplay of many interacting degrees of freedom. In this module you will learn about the important physical properties of matter and the two main approaches to their description. One, thermodynamics, treats macroscopically relevant degrees of freedom (temperature, pressure and so on) and find relations between these and the fundamental laws which govern them, independent of their microscopic structure. The other approach, statistical mechanics, links the macroscopically relevant properties to the microphysics by replacing the detailed microscopic dynamics with a statistical description. The common feature of both of these methods is the introduction of two macroscopic quantities, temperature and entropy, that have no microscopic meaning.

 


Compulsory with Mathematical Sciences

Introduction to Solid State Physics (20 credits, full year)
This module will provide a general introduction to solid state physics. Topics covered include:
  • Bonding nature of chemical bonds, thermodynamics of solid formation
  • Crystal structures description of crystal structures, k-space, reciprocal lattice, Bragg diffraction, Brillouin zones
  • Nearly-free electron model - Bloch's theorem, band gaps from electron Bragg scattering, effective masses
  • Band theory Fermi surfaces, qualitative picture of transport, metals, insulators and semiconductors
  • Semiconductors - doping, inhomogeneous semiconductors, basic description of pn junction
  • Phonons normal modes of ionic lattice, quantization, Debye theory of heat capacities, acoustic and optical phonons
  • Optical properties of solids absorption and reflection of light by metals, Brewster angle, dielectric constants, plasma oscillations
  • Magnetism- Landau diamagnetism, paramagnetism, exchange interactions, Ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism, neutron scattering, dipolar interactions and domain formation, magnetic technology
 
 

Mathematical Sciences


20 compulsory credits:

  • Natural Sciences Synoptic Module (20 credits, full year)


30 compulsory credits from your chosen subpathway:

Modelling 1 subpathway

  • Mathematical Medicine and Biology (20 credits, Autumn semester)
Mathematics can be usefully applied to a wide range of applications in medicine and biology. Without assuming any prior biological knowledge, this course describes how mathematics helps us understand topics such as population dynamics, biological oscillations, pattern formation and nonlinear growth phenomena. There is considerable emphasis on model building and development.
 
  • Game Theory (10 credits, Spring semester)
Game theory contains many branches of mathematics (and computing); the emphasis here is primarily algorithmic. The module starts with an investigation into normal-form games, including strategic dominance, Nash equilibria, and the Prisoner’s Dilemma. We look at tree-searching, including alpha-beta pruning, the ‘killer’ heuristic and its relatives. It then turns to mathematical theory of games; exploring the connection between numbers and games, including Sprague-Grundy theory and the reduction of impartial games to Nim.
 

 

Modelling 2 subpathway

  • Coding and Cryptography (10 credits, Autumn semester)
This course provides an introduction to coding theory in particular to error-correcting codes and their uses and applications. It also provides an introduction to to cryptography , including classical mono- and polyalphabetic ciphers as well as modern public key cryptography and digital signatures, their uses and applications.
 
  • Differential Equations (20 credits, Autumn semester)
This course introduces various analytical methods for the solution of ordinary and partial differential equations, focussing on asymptotic techniques and dynamical systems theory. Students taking this course will build on their understanding of differential equations covered in MATH2012.
 

 

Optional mathematics modules

A further 20 credits from the options below:

  • Differential Equations (20 credits, Autumn semester)
This course introduces various analytical methods for the solution of ordinary and partial differential equations, focussing on asymptotic techniques and dynamical systems theory. Students taking this course will build on their understanding of differential equations covered in MATH2012.
 
  • Electromagnetism (20 credits, Spring semester)

The course complements others in the Waves Pathway by providing an introduction to electromagnetism and the electrodynamics of charged particles. The aims of this course are:

  • to develop an appropriate mathematical model of electromagnetic phenomena that is informed by observations;
  • to understand electromagnetic configurations of practical importance and to relate predictions made to everyday phenomena;
  • to illustrate the use of solutions of certain canonical partial differential equations for determining electrostatic fields and electromagnetic waves in vacuum and in matter;
  • to illustrate the interplay between experimental input and the development of a mathematical model, and the use of various mathematical techniques for solving relevant problems.
 
  • Fluid Dynamics (20 credits, Spring semester)
This course aims to extend previous knowledge of fluid flow by introducing the concept of viscosity and studying the fundamental governing equations for the motion of liquids and gases. Methods for solution of these equations are introduced, including exact solutions and approximate solutions valid for thin layers. A further aim is to apply the theory to model fluid dynamical problems of physical relevance.
 
  • Topics in Scientific Computation (20 credits, Spring semester)
 

 

Year Four (MSci students only)

You will choose one of your third-year subjects to focus on in the fourth year, spending half your time working on an independent research project aiming to develop the skills needed to pursue a career in research. Alongside the project you take taught modules in your main subject and if you wish to maintain some breadth you can also take options from your other third year subject.

Chemistry


60 compulsory credits:

  • Chemistry Research Project (60 credits, full year)
This module will give students the opportunity to undertake a research project in Chemistry. A wide range of projects will be available and students will be offered a selection of research areas. All projects will require a review of relevant published work and the planning and execution of a research topic under the guidance of two supervisors. Students will present their findings orally and in a written report. 
 

 

Minimum of 20 credits, maximum of 60 credits from the options below:

Enterprise for Chemists (10 credits, full year)
Students will learn about the factors that lead to successful innovation, including evaluation and management of an idea/concept. In addition, students will consider the factors required to extract the value from a product/concept (e.g. market awareness) and the potential routes to market available from both an academic and industrial viewpoint.
 
 Advanced Physical Chemistry 1 (10 credits, Autumn semester)
The module covers advanced topics of current importance in Physical Chemistry. (1) Intermolecular Forces. Relevance of intermolecular forces. Calculating and measuring intermolecular forces. Computer modelling and simulations of condensed phases. Molecular properties and the multipole expansion. Perturbation theory of intermolecular forces. Monte Carlo simulations and calculation of thermodynamic properties. (2) Chemical Sensors. Principles of chemical sensing. Operating principles of electrochemical sensors, including ion-selective electrodes and amperometric sensors. Potentiometric and amperometric enzyme electrodes. DNA-based sensors. Piezoelectric sensors and biosensors. Immunological sensors and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.
 
  • Contemporary Organic Synthesis (10 credits, Autumn semester)

Explore the synthesis of a variety of natural (and unnatural) compounds of relevance to biology and medicine, with reference to the goals and achievements of contemporary organic synthesis through a range of case studies. There is an emphasis on the use of modern synthetic methodology to address problems such as chemoselectivity, regiocontrol, stereoselectivity, atom economy and sustainability.

You will also study the application of new methodology for the rapid, efficient and highly selective construction of a range of target compounds - particularly those that display significant biological activity. There will also be an opportunity to address how a greater understanding of mechanism is important in modern organic chemistry. This module is assessed by a two hour exam.

 
Contemporary Physical Chemistry (10 credits, Autumn semester
 

Applications will be introduced that range from condensed matter through to gas phase, but novel “states” of matter such as ultracold molecules in traps and liquid He nanodroplets, microsolvated clusters, and low dimensional carbon structures will also be covered. The dynamics of chemical processes, including non-adiabatic interactions will be discussed, and the capability of modern light sources allowing for the study of time-resolved measurements on chemically relevant timescales ranging from pico- to attoseconds will be explained and illustrated. Methods for the state-selective preparation and detection of molecular systems will be discussed. The principles by which extended systems can be designed to have properties allowing use in novel sensors and devices will be introduced. A wide range of computational techniques will be covered which underpin the modelling of cutting edge scientific applications such as gas capture and storage at the nanometer scale and novel nanomaterials.

 
Inorganic and Materials Chemistry A (10 credits, Autumn semester)
This course aims to give knowledge and understanding of (i) the structure, bonding and physicochemical properties of carbon nanostructures; (ii) the key technological applications of graphene, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes; (iii) the historical and the most modern approaches to advanced polymeric materials manufacture; (iv) the most important structure property relationships of polymeric materials and how these can be controlled, measured and exploited.
 
  • Inorganic and Materials Chemistry B (10 credits, Autumn semester)

This module builds on the previous years' modules on both transition metal chemistry and structural chemistry and focuses on Inorganic Photochemistry and Crystal Structure Determination. Photochemistry topics covered include Electron transfer pathways; dynamics and energies; biological systems; mixed valance compounds; Principles of molecular and supramolecular photochemistry; Applications of inorganic photochemistry; probes for DNA, ion sensors, artificial photosynthesis, photocatalysis, photodynamic therapy of cancer treatment. Crystal Structure Determination topics covered include an Introduction and Overview; a survey of key background concepts; sample preparation and evaluation; data acquisition and processing; structure solution and refinement; interpretation and analysis of results; case studies of routine and challenging structural problems; related techniques; sources and detectors; current practice and future developments.

 
Medicines from Nature (10 credits, Autumn semester)
This course aims to give an overview of the history of natural products and their importance to the discovery of medicines. To describe the relationship of natural products and how they are synthesised in nature to medicines in the following areas: non-steroid anti-inflammatory agents, steroids, polyketides and terpenes, vitamins, cannabinoids, anti-cancer agents, alkaloids and neurotransmitters and anti-biotics.To delineate the principles of process chemistry as applied to the pharmaceutical industry. To consider six main aspects of process chemistry: Safety, Environmental; Legal; Economics; Control; Throughput. To consider how these aspects can affect the viability of a synthesis and lead to the development of alternatives that are safer, have lower environmental impact, and are more efficient and cost-effective.
 
  • Advanced Physical Chemistry 2 (10 credits, Spring semester)
The module provides the student with the opportunity to study the topics of Astrophysical Chemistry and Quantum Mechanics and Spectroscopy to a more advanced level building on the Chemistry covered in the core modules.
 
  • Advanced Biocatalysis, Biosynthesis and Chemical Biology (10 credits, Spring semester)
Advanced Chemical Biology: To introduce concepts of chemical genetics and including activity-based protein profiling, non-natural amino acid incorporation, bio-orthogonal reactivity and the use of bump-and-hole strategies, applied to various challenges such as finding kinase/target pairs. Biocatalysis: To introduce enzyme engineering and the synthetic utility of designer biocatalysts, especially highlighting chemo-enzymatic approaches toward chiral commodity molecules (e.g. pharmaceuticals) and their precursors. Biosynthesis: To introduce the biosynthetic pathways and enzyme catalysed reactions leading natural products polyketides, terpenes, fatty acids and non-ribosomal peptides.
 
  • Nucleic Acids and Bio-organic Mechanism (10 credits, Spring semester)
During this module you will learn to understand in depth the structure, chemistry and molecular recognition of nucleic acids and their reactivity towards mutagens, carcinogens and ionising radiation and anti-tumour drugs. You will appreciate the plasticity and dynamics of the DNA duple helix through base motions that underpin its function. The bacterial replisome will be used as the prime example to highlight the problems associated with DNA replication and the significance of telomeres will be discussed. Alongside this you will develop an understanding of the chemical reactivity of coenzymes and how these add significantly to the functionality of the 20 amino acids found in proteins. 
 
  • Self-assembly and Bottom-up Approaches to Nanostructure Fabrication (10 credits, Spring semester)
 

Physics


60 compulsory credits:

  • Natural Sciences Physics Project (60 credits, full year)


Compulsory (if Introduction to Solid State Physics not taken)

Solid State Physics for Natural Sciences (20 credits, full year)
This module will provide a general introduction to solid state physics. Topics to be covered will include:
  • Fermi Dirac and Bose-Einstein Statistics, Fermi Wave-vector, temperature
  • Introduction to Fourier Transforms and Associated Techniques
  • bonding nature of chemical bonds, thermodynamics of solid formation
  • crystal structures description of crystal structures, k-space, reciprocal lattice, Bragg diffraction, Brillouin zones
  • Nearly-free electron model - Bloch's theorem, band gaps from electron Bragg scattering, effective masses
  • Band theory Fermi surfaces, qualitative picture of transport, metals, insulators and semiconductors
  • Semiconductors - doping, inhomogeneous semiconductors, basic description of pn junction
  • Phonons  normal modes of ionic lattice, quantization, Debye theory of heat capacities, acoustic and optical phonons
  • Optical properties of solids absorption and reflection of light by metals, Brewster angle, dielectric constants, plasma oscillations
  • Magnetism, Landau diamagnetism, paramagnetism, exchange interactions, Ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism, neutron scattering, dipolar interactions and domain formation, magnetic technology
 

 

Minimum of 20 credits, maximum of 60 credits from the options below:

  • Atmospheric Physics (10 credits, Autumn semester)
From Accelerators to Medical Imaging (10 credits, Autumn semester)
The first half of this module will describe radiation sources and detectors, with particular reference to those used in the medical imaging applications described in the second half. It will include the physics of accelerators such as linacs, cyclotrons and synchrotrons, of detectors such as ionization chambers, scintillators and solid state detectors and of X-ray imaging, nuclear imaging and positron emission tomography (PET).
 
  • Introduction to Cosmology (10 credits, Autumn semester)
Cosmology is the scientific study of the universe as a whole. The module provides an introduction to modern cosmology, including some of the more recent observational and theoretical developments. No prior knowledge of General Relativity is required. Topics covered include: observed features of the universe, the Cosmological Principle, Newtoniaan and Relativistic cosmology, the Friedmann Models, cosmic expansion, the cosmological constant, evidence for the big bang model, the thermal history of the big bang, the early universe and inflation, the classical cosmological tests, structure formation (brief treatment only).
 
Soft Condensed Matter (10 credits, Autumn semester)
The aim of this module will be to give students a basic grounding in key concepts in soft condensed matter physics, with emphasis being placed on the dynamic, structural and kinematic properties of these materials. Key differences and similarities between soft matter, hard matter and liquid systems will be highlighted and discussed throughout the module. Material that will be covered includes:
  1. Introduction to Soft Matter
  2. Forces, energies and timescales in soft matter
  3. Liquids and glasses
  4. Phase transitions in soft matter (solid-liquid and liquid-liquid demixing)
  5. Polymeric materials
  6. Gelation
  7. Crystallisation in soft systems
  8. Liquid crystals
  9. Molecular order in soft systems
  10. Soft Nanotechnology
 
  • Extreme Astrophysics (10 credits, Spring semester)
To develop an understanding of high-energy phenomena in astrophysics and the relative importance of different processes in different situations.
To make models of extreme astrophysical sources and environments basedon physical theory.
To interpret observational data in the light of relevant physical theory.
 
  • Functional Medical Imaging (10 credits, Spring semester)
The techniques for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) are explored. The course aims to introduce the brain imaging technique of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), giving an overview of the physics involved in this technique. The electromagnetic techniques of electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) will then be outlined, and the relative advantages of the techniques described.
 
  • Imaging and Manipulation at the Nanoscale (10 credits, Spring semester)
The invention of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) in the 1980s has led to a revolution in the imaging of surfaces and has provided an enormous stimulus for the development of nanoscience. The operation of a scanning probe microscope relies on the interaction between a local probe and a surface. A family of techniques has been derived from the STM which exploit a range of different forces and other interactions for image formation. The most widely-used of these techniques is atomic force microscopy which, unlike, STM, can be used to image insulating samples. In this module the focus will be on the development of physical models to describe the interaction between a local point-like probe and a surface. The operation of the STM will be considered in detail together with design considerations which are common across all scanning probe microscopes. In the second half of the course, forces between the tip and sample will be considered and methods for measuring these interactions will be discussed. The probe-surface interaction can also be used to modify the surface with a specificity which can result in placement of single atoms and molecules and these patterning processes will be discussed. Throughout the course images from the current research literature will be introduced to inform students of the range of possible applications of this these techniques.
 
Semiconductor Physics (10 credits, Spring semester)
This module introduces you to the physical properties of semiconductors and low-dimensional systems, such as quantum wells, wires and dots. The aim is to explain the physics that underlies optical and transport properties of these structures and and their applications in advanced technologies.
This course is structured in two main parts. The first part focuses on the foundation of quantum mechanics and solid state physics needed to describe a low dimensional system. The module then moves on describing the physical principles of semiconductor junction and devices.
 
  • Quantum Coherent Phenomena (10 credits, Spring semester)
This module will introduce a number of systems in which quantum coherent phenomena are observed, discuss their common features and the general underlying theoretical ideas for their description as well as some of their applications.
  • Bose condensation review of Bose statistics, BEC, BEC in cold atomic gases.
  • Superfluidity in Helium-4 quantum fluids, macroscopic wave functions, superfluidity, non-classical rotational inertia and vortices, phonon and roton excitations.
  • Superconductivity conduction in metals, superconducting materials, zero-resistivity, Meissner effect, perfect diamagnetism, type I and type II behaviour, London theory.
  • BCS theory of superconductivity.- electron-phonon interaction, Cooper pairs, BCS wave function, order parameter and microscopic origin of GL.
  • Applications: squids, superconducting magnets etc.
 
  • Theoretical Elementary Particle Physics (10 credits, Spring semester)
To introduce the key theoretical ideas of elementary particle physics, such as symmetry and conservation laws, and to build the foundations for a mathematical description of particle properties and interactions.
 
 

Mathematical Sciences


60 compulsory credits:

  • Mathematics Project (60 credits, full year)


Minimum of 40 credits, maximum of 60 credits from the options below:

  • Advanced Techniques for Differential Equations (20 credits, Autumn semester)

The development of techniques for the study of nonlinear differential equations is a major worldwide research activity to which members of the School have made important contributions. This course will cover a number of state-of-the-art methods, namely:

  • use of green function methods in the solution of linear partial differential equations
  • characteristic methods, classification and regularization of nonlinear partial differentiation equations
  • bifurcation theory

These will be illustrated by applications in the biological and physical sciences.

 
  • Computational and Systems Biology (20 credits, Autumn semester)
The purpose of this module is to deepen and broaden the students’ knowledge and experience of computational and systems biology techniques, including the use of numerical solutions of ODEs and PDEs, and of relevant computer packages (eg MATLAB, Python/Scipy).
 
  • Quantum Information Science (20 credits, Autumn semester)
This Quantum Theory Pathway course gives a mathematical introduction to quantum information theory. Its content builds on MATH2013 with the aim of providing the student with a background in quantum information science which will facilitate further independent learning and the access to current research topics.
 
  • Scientific Computation and C++ (20 credits, Autumn semester)
The purpose of this course is to introduce concepts of scientific programming using the object oriented language C++ for applications arising in the mathematical modelling of physical processes. Students taking this module will develop knowledge and understanding of a variety or relevant numerical techniques and how to efficiently implement them in C++.
 
  • Applied Nonlinear Dynamics (20 credits, Spring semester)
The course will cover Nonlinear oscillations, including the linear stability of limit cycles (Floquet theory), the Mathieu equation, and relaxation oscillators (using geometric singular perturbation theory). Synchronisation by periodic forcing will be discussed using the notion of isochrons and phase-response curves, as well as Poincaré sections, circle-maps, mode-locking, and Arnol’d tongues. The treatment of Chaos will cover tests for chaos (Liapunov exponents and spectral analysis), strange and chaotic attractors, fractal boundaries, and routes to chaos in nonlinear dynamical systems. The analysis of Oscillator networks will cover weakly coupled phase-oscillators, Kuramoto networks, and the master-stability theorem for linearly coupled limit-cycle networks. The extension of techniques to Non-smooth dynamical systems will be developed for piece-wise linear systems (exact analysis), impact oscillators (with grazing bifurcations), and integrate-and-fire models (from neurons to networks). The course will conclude with a treatment of Spatially extended systems, covering pattern formation (in both PDE and integral equation models), and weakly nonlinear analysis (amplitude equations and pattern selection).
 
  • Advanced Fluid Mechanics (20 credits, Spring semester)
This course forms part of the Fluid and Solid Mechanics pathway within Applied Mathematics. Students taking this course will develop their knowledge of specialised topics within fluid mechanics and be introduced to areas of active research.
 
  • Computational Applied Mathematics (20 credits, Spring semester)
This course introduces computational methods for solving problems in applied mathematics. Students taking this course will develop knowledge and understanding to design, justify and implement relevant computational techniques and methodologies.
 
 

 

The following is a sample of the typical modules that we offer as at the date of publication but is not intended to be construed and/or relied upon as a definitive list of the modules that will be available in any given year. Due to the passage of time between commencement of the course and subsequent years of the course, modules may change due to developments in the curriculum and the module information in this prospectus is provided for indicative purposes only.

Natural Sciences

School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham
University Park
NG7 2RD

Tel: +44 (0) 115 823 2376
Fax: +44 (0) 115 951 3555
Email: naturalsciences@nottingham.ac.uk