Anaesthesia & Critical Care
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Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Systems Medicine (ICSM)

Aim and expertise

We design, develop and apply pathophysiological models of human organ systems, with the aim of addressing issues of impact in critical illness and medical crisis scenarios.

Medical students practising resuscitation


Research issues

Critical illness and medical crises are a huge drain on our society. They consume a disproportionate part of medical budgets and are tremendously disruptive to patients and their families. Due to the unpredictable nature of these issues, the heterogeneity of patients and the time critical nature of events, recruitment to clinical studies is difficult, and the results disappointingly noisy and unhelpful. There has thus developed a pressing need for a novel method to answer questions of crucial importance to these most vulnerable of patients.

What we are doing about...

1. Ventilation strategies in the Intensive Care Unit

We are using complex, high-fidelity, multi-organ models to address ventilation strategies in the Intensive Care Unit, and their effects on gas exchange, ventilator-associated lung injury and tissue oxygen delivery. This work is currently funded by the MRC and is staffed by 2 post-doctoral researchers, 2 PhD students and 2 professors.


2. Critical illness resuscitation

We are using integrated multi-organ models to investigate the optimisation of critical illness resuscitation, including cardiopulmonary resuscitation (i.e. CPR), fluid resuscitation, ventilatory optimisation and the use of vasoactive drugs. This work is currently funded by the EPSRC and is staffed by 2 post-doctoral researchers, 1 PhD student and 2 professors.



Project awards

  • Preventing Ventilator Associated Lung Injury using Feedback Control Engineering, EPSRC (£500k)
  • Integrated Cardiopulmonary Modelling for the Investigation of the Management of Disturbed Tissue Perfusion, MRC (£600k)

Key publications

A.Das, P.P. Menon, J. Hardman and D.G. Bates, “Optimization of Ventilation Settings for Pulmonary Disease States”, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 60(6):1599-607, 2013

A. Das, Z. Gao, P.P. Menon, J. Hardman and D.G. Bates, “A Systems Engineering approach to validation of a pulmonary physiology simulator for clinical applications”, Journal of The Royal Society Interface, doi: 10.1098/rsif.2010.0224, 2011

P Sinha, K Corrie, A Bersten, JG Hardman, N Soni. Ventilatory ratio: validation in an ex vivo model and analysis in ARDS/ALI patients. Critical Care 15, 1-190



About ICSM

This research group is a collaboration between researchers at the Universities of Nottingham and Warwick, led by Professor Jonathan Hardman (Nottingham) and Professor Declan Bates (Warwick).  

PhD opportunities

A variety of PhD projects are offered, ranging in methodologies from clinical trials, modelling, benchtop simulations and systematic reviews.

Subject matter for PhD projects is tailored to the student and to the current state of the group’s work. Please contact Professor JG Hardman to discuss possibilities.



Anaesthesia & Critical Care

School of Medicine
The University of Nottingham
C Floor, East Block, Queen's Medical Centre
Nottingham, NG7 2UH

telephone: +44 (0) 115 823 1009