Studying Effectively
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Search skills

Literature searching is a structured and organised way of finding information.  

Developing your search skills, and knowing where to look for information, will help you get the most out of online searching.

Planning your literature search and identifying keywords

It’s easy to become overwhelmed by the amount of information available. Planning your search in advance will enable you to quickly and easily find relevant information and save you time in the long run.

The first step is to think about your topic and be clear about what you’re looking for. Break down your topic into its key concepts, and identify keywords you could use to describe them.

Be prepared to try different combinations of keywords to refine or broaden your search depending on your results. You may have to try your search more than once before you find what you’re looking for.

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 Search techniques

You can apply a range of search techniques to help you find relevant information online.  Use the following tutorials for some hints and tips.


Truncation enables you to search for a word stem along with all its different endings in one go.

Search Skills: Using truncation



Wildcards are useful when you’re searching for a keyword that has an alternative spelling, e.g. a UK and US variation.

Search Skills: Using wildcards

Phrase searching

Phrase searching is useful if you want to search for two or more words adjacent to each other in a specified order.

Search Skills: Using phrase searching


Proximity operators

Proximity operators enable you to search for a keyword within a specified number of words of another keyword in any order.

Search Skills: Using proximity operators


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Combining keywords

Having identified your keywords and thought about the search techniques you could use, the next step is to consider how to combine your keywords into a structured search.

Using boolean operators and parentheses (brackets) 

Boolean operators and parentheses (brackets) enable you to refine or broaden your search by combining your keywords.  When used correctly they can help you focus your search and save you time.

Search Skills: Using boolean operators and parentheses

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Planning a search in your subject area

The following resources will help you get started with planning a literature search in your subject area.

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Applying search skills across different resources


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Further support



Studying Effectively

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