Faculty of Engineering
   
   
  
 

Image of Walid Tizani

Walid Tizani

Associate Professor in Structural Engineering Design and Informatics, Faculty of Engineering

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Biography

PhD (Bradford, UK), MSc (Leeds, UK), BSc (Mosul), Baccalaureat (Lebanon)

Jan 1992 Research Fellow (Leeds University)

Oct 1992 Research Fellow (Notthingham University)

Oct 1994 Lecturer (Notthingham University)

Aug 2002 Senior Lecturer (Notthingham University)

Oct 2008 Associate Professor (Notthingham University)

Expertise Summary

Dr Tizani's main research areas are the application of novel information technologies to structures and the performance of steel connections. His experience includes the application of knowledge based systems and object oriented technology in the provision of advice and decision support for structural design; virtual reality in the design of structural steelwork; virtual prototyping; construction-led and integrated design; the economic appraisal of structural steelwork; collaborative design. His experimental work includes the investigation of the performance of bolted connections in structural steelwork including blind-bolt connection to tubular hollow sections. He acted as a consultant in the areas of: Structural engineering with special emphasis on steelwork, Design of structural steelwork connections, and Software system development for structural engineering applications.

Dr Tizani is also the head of the Centre for Structural Engineering & Informatics Research Group.

Teaching Summary

Structural engineering design

Steel structures

Research Summary

Virtual prototyping of building design Process re-engineering for the design and manufacture of structural steelwork (DTi)

Appraisal and design of the 3D virtual building (EPSRC)

Re-engineering the processes of design, fabrication and erection of steel structures (EPSRC-IMI)

Collaborative design

Structural steelwork connections Blind-bolt connections to tubular columns

Selected Publications

Future Research

Virtual prototyping of building design Knowledge management

  • HAJI, TWANA KAMAL, MARSHALL, ALEC M. and TIZANI, WALID, 2018. A cantilever approach to estimate bending stiffness of buildings affected by tunnelling Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology. 71, 47-61
  • SPRINKS, J, WARDLAW, J, HOUGHTON, RJ, BAMFORD, S and MORLEY, J, 2017. Task Workflow Design and its impact on performance and volunteers' subjective preference in Virtual Citizen Science International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. 104, 50-63
  • OSORIO-SANDOVAL, C. A., KOCH, C. and TIZANI, W., 2017. Computer technology for serious games in education: A literature review
  • KOCH, C., TIZANI, W. and NINIĆ, J., 2017. Preface ii
  • FADOUL, A H and TIZANI, W, 2017. Evaluation of current practice and associated challenges towards integrated design Advances in Computational Design. 2(2), 89-105
  • FADOUL, A H, TIZANI, W and KOCH, C, 2017. Constructability assessment model for buildings design In: Digital Proceedings of the 24th EG-ICE International Workshop on Intelligent Computing in Engineering 2017. 86-95
  • OTI AH, TIZANI W, ABANDA FH, JALY-ZADA A and TAH JHM, 2016. Structural Sustainability Appraisal in BIM Automation in Construction. 69, 44–58
  • MULLER, J. P., TAO, Y., SIDIROPOULOS, P., GWINNER, K., WILLNER, K., FANARA, L., WAEHLISCH, M., VAN GASSELT, S., WALTER, S., STEIKERT, R., SCHREINER, B., IVANOV, A., CANTINI, F., WARDLAW, J., MORLEY, J., SPRINKS, J., GIORDANO, M., MARSH, S., KIM, J., HOUGHTON, R. and BAMFORD, S., 2016. EU-FP7-IMARS: Analysis of Mars multi-resolution images using auto-coregistration, data mining and crowd source techniques: Processed results - A first look
  • BOURNAS, DIONYSIOS A., PAVESE, ALBERTO and TIZANI, WALID, 2015. Tensile capacity of FRP anchors in connecting FRP and TRM sheets to concrete ENGINEERING STRUCTURES. 82, 72-81
  • TIZANI W and PITRAKKOS T, 2015. Performance of T-Stub to CFT Joints Using Blind Bolts with Headed Anchors Journal of Structural Engineering. 11
  • OTI H A and TIZANI W, 2015. BIM extension for the sustainability appraisal of conceptual steel design Advanced Engineering Informatics. 29(1), 28-46
  • PITRAKKOS T and TIZANI W, 2015. A component method model for blind-bolts with headed anchors in tension J. of Steel and Composite Structures. 18(5), 1305-1330
  • PASCUAL A M, ROMERO M L and TIZANI W, 2015. Thermal behaviour of blind-bolted connections to hollow and concrete-filled steel tubular columns Journal of Constructional Steel Research. 107, 137–149
  • PASCUAL A M, ROMERO M L and TIZANI W, 2015. Fire performance of blind-bolted connections to concrete filled tubular columns in tension Engineering Structures. 96, 111-125
  • ELAMIN, A, TIZANI, W and MAHMOUD, M, 2015. Bolts gauge effect on the face bending behaviour of concrete-filled hollow section for hollo-bolted connections Applied Mechanics and Materials. 773, 105-109
  • TIZANI W., RAHMAN N.A., PITRAKKOS T., 2014. Fatigue life of an anchored blind-bolt loaded in tension Journal of Constructional Steel Research.
  • MAHMOOD M, TIZANI W and SANSOUR C, 2014. Effect of Tube Thickness on the Face Bending for Blind-Bolted Connection to Concrete Filled Tubular Structures International Journal of Civil, Architectural, Structural and Construction Engineering. 8(9),
  • JALYZADA A, TIZANI W and OTI H A, 2014. Building Information Modelling (BIM) – Versioning for collaborative design In: COMPUTING IN CIVIL AND BUILDING ENGINEERING ©ASCE 2014. 512-519
  • OTI H A, TIZANI W and JALYZADA A, 2014. A BIM extension for sustainability appraisal of conceptual structural design In: COMPUTING IN CIVIL AND BUILDING ENGINEERING ©ASCE 2014. 219-226
  • ABD RAHMAN N and TIZANI W, 2014. Effect of Loading Frequency on Fatigue Life of Extended Hollobolt in Concrete Filled Hollow Section Advanced Materials Research. 1025-1026, 950-954
  • TIZANI, W., WANG, Z.Y. and HAJIRASOULIHA, I., 2013. Hysteretic performance of a new blind bolted connection to concrete filled columns under cyclic loading: an experimental investigation Engineering Structures. 46(January), 535-546
  • TIZANI, W., AL-MUGHAIRI, A., OWEN, J.S. and PITRAKKOS, T., 2013. Rotational stiffness of a blind-bolted connection to concrete-filled tubes using modified Hollo-bolt Journal of Constructional Steel Research. 80(January), 317-331
  • PITRAKKOS, T. and TIZANI, W., 2013. Experimental behaviour of a novel anchored blind-bolt in tension Engineering Structures. 49(April), 905-919
  • TIZANI W., MAWDESLEY M.J., 2013. Special section and overview of the 13th international conference on computing in civil and building engineering Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering.
  • ABD RAHMAN N., TIZANI W., 2013. Fatigue performance of blind bolt in concrete-filled hollow section Applied Mechanics and Materials.
  • AKPONANABOFA, H. O. and TIZANI, W., 2012. A sustainability extension of building information modelling for conceptual steel design. In: ISSA, R. A. and ISSA, C. A., eds., Proceedings of the 29th Int. Conf. on Application of IT in the AEC Industry: CIB W078 Lebanese American University..
  • TIZANI, W., 2011. Collaborative design in virtual environment at conceptual stage. In: WANG, X and TSAI, J.J.-H., eds., Collaborative design in virtual environments: Intelligent Systems, Control and Automation: Science and Engineering 48. Springer. 67-76
  • TIZANI, W. and MAWDESLEY, M.J., 2011. Advances and challenges in computing in civil and building engineering Advanced Engineering Informatics. 25(4), 569-572
  • PITRAKKOS, T. and TIZANI, W., 2011. Blind-bolted connections to concrete-filled sections: Modelling the Tensile Behaviour of the Anchored Blind-Bolt Component In: EUROSTEEL 2011, 31 August - 2 Sept, Budapest, Hungary. 513-518
  • OTI, A. H. and TIZANI, W., 2011. A Sustainability Appraisal Framework for the Design of Steel-Framed Buildings In: the Thirteenth International Conference on Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering Computing. paper 30
  • WANG, Z.Y., TIZANI, W. and WANG, Q.Y., 2010. Strength and initial stiffness of a blind-bolt connection based on the T-stub model Engineering Structures. 32(9), 2505-2517
  • OTI, A.H. and TIZANI, W., 2010. Developing incentives for collaboration in the AEC Industry. In Computing in Civil and Building Engineering. In: TIZANI, W., ed., Computing in Civil and Building Engineering: Proceedings of the International Conference Nottingham University Press. 319-
  • ELAMIN, A, TIZANI, W. and ABD RAHMAN, N., 2010. The face bending behaviour of concrete filled structural hollow sections.. In: TIZANI, W., ed., Computing in Civil and Building Engineering: Proceedings of the International Conference Nottingham University Press. 511-
  • PITRAKKOS, T., TIZANI, W. and WANG, Z, 2010. . Pull-out behaviour of anchored blind-bolt: a component based approach. In: TIZANI, W., ed., Computing in Civil and Building Engineering: Proceedings of the International Conference Nottingham University Press. 509-
  • WANG, ZY. and TIZANI, W., 2010. . Modelling techniques of composite joints under cyclic loading. In: TIZANI, W., ed., Computing in Civil and Building Engineering: Proceedings of the International Conference Nottingham University Press. 507-
  • AL-MUGHAIRI, A, TIZANI, W and OWEN, JS, 2010. Validation Of An FE Model For An Experimental Blind-Bolted Moment-Resisting Connection To Concrete Filled Hollow Section
  • WANG, ZY, TIZANI, W and WANG, QY, 2010. Study On The Initial Stiffness Of Blind Bolted T-Stub Connections
  • WANG, ZY., TIZANI, W. and WANG, Q. Y., 2009. FE analysis of the influence of column axial load on the cyclic behavior of bolted endplate joint. In: FURUTA, H., FRANGOPOL, D.M. and SHINOZUKA, M., eds., Safety, reliability and risk of structures, infrastructures and engineering systems: Tenth Int. Conference on Structural Safety and Reliability 2009 Taylor and Francis. 44-
  • AL-MUGHAIRI, A, TIZANI, W and OWEN, JS, 2009. Connection To Concrete Filled Hollow Section Using Extended Hollobolt (Moment Connection Tests)
  • FAHDAH, I. and TIZANI, W., 2008. Communication and Concurrency Approach for a Real-time Collaborative Building Design Environment. In: RAFIQ, Y., DE WILDE, P. and BORTHWICK, M., eds., Intelligent Computing in Engineering: Conference Proceedings 2008 University of Plymouth. 283-291
  • TIZANI, W., 2007. Engineering design. In: AOUAD, G., LEE, A. and WU, S., eds., Constructing the future: nD modelling London: Taylor & Francis. 14-39
  • FAHDAH, I. and TIZANI, W., 2007. A product model for collaborative building design In: The Ninth International Conference on the Application of Artificial Intelligence to Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering. paper 1, ISBN 978-1-905088-20-1
  • FAHDAN, I. AND TIZANI, W., 2006. Virtual Collaborative Building Design Environment Using Software Agents In: 6th International Conference on Construction Applications of Virtual Reality. On CD
  • TIZANI, W., SMITH, R.A. and RUIKAR, D., 2005. Virtual Prototyping for Engineering Design In: the 5th conference on Construction Applications of virtual reality, CONVR 2005.
  • RUIKAR, D., TIZANI, W. and SMITH, R., 2005. Design Process Improvement using a Single Model Environment In: the Tenth International Conference on Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering Computing. Paper 57
  • FAHDAH, I. and TIZANI, W., 2005. Specifications and Design for a Multi-Agent Collaborative Structural Design System In: the Eighth International Conference on the Application of Artificial Intelligence to Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering. Paper 4
  • ROSHANI, D. and TIZANI, W., 2005. Integrated IFC based Collaborative Building Design using Internet Technology In: the Tenth International Conference on Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering Computing. Paper 58
  • TIZANI, W., WHITEHEAD, A.S., GREIG, A.R. and BLACKMAN, S., 2004. A support system for a good practice approach to the conceptual design of tubular space bridges International Journal of IT in Architecture, Engineering and Construction (IT-AEC). 2(3), 217-232
  • ELLISON, S. and TIZANI, W., 2004. Behaviour of b;indbolted connections to concrete filled hollow sections The Structural Engineer. 82(22), 16-17
  • TIZANI, W., 2004. The role of VR in multi discipline building design In: The 4th conference on Construction Applications of virtual reality, CONVR 2004. 173-178
  • TIZANI, W. and RIDLEY-ELLIS, D. J., 2003. The performance of a new blind-bolt for moment-resisting connections. In: JAURIETTA, M.A., ALONSO, A. and CHICA, J.A., eds., Tubular structures X: proceedings of the 10th international symposium on tubular structures, 18-20 September 2003, Madrid, Spain Rotterdam: A. A. Balkema. 395-400
  • RUIKAR, D., TIZANI, W. and SMITH, R.A., 2003. Design process improvement through an IT supported design process In: The Seventh International Conference on the Application of Artificial Intelligence to Civil and Structural Engineering.
  • SMITH, R.A., TIZANI, W. and RUIKAR, D., 2003. Modelling design constraints for an automated design process In: The Seventh International Conference on the Application of Artificial Intelligence to Civil and Structural Engineering.
  • SMITH, R.A. and TIZANI, W., 2003. Virtual Prototyping For Concurrent AEC Design In: 10th ISPE Int. Conference on Concurrent Engineering: Research and Applications. 899-905
  • TIZANI, W. and SMITH, R.A., 2003. Overview of an IT vision for engineering design In: Developing a Vision of nD-Enabled Construction. 108-111
  • TIZANI, W. and SMITH, R.A., 2003. Incremental virtual prototyping as an IT tool for CE projects In: Towards a vision for information technology in civil engineering, Proceedings of the Fourth Joint International Symposium on Information Technology in Civil Engineering, Nashville, Tennessee, 15-16 November, 2003. 1-9
  • TIZANI, W., SMITH, R.A. and RUIKAR, D., 2002. Decision support through an integrated product and process model In: The 3rd International Conference on Decision Making in Urban and Civil Engineering. 853-859
  • TIZANI, W., RUIKAR, D. and SMITH, R.A., 2002. Design of multi storey steel framed structure using an integrated product and process model In: The ASCE Civil Engineering Conference and Exposition Nov 2002, The ITinCE Workshop. 48-57
  • TIZANI, W., RUIKAR, D. and SMITH, R.A., 2002. An Integrated Product And Process Model For Steel Framed Buildings In: The European Conference of Product and Process Modelling. 417-421
  • TIZANI, W. and SMITH, R.A., 2002. Product and process model for the virtual steel building In: The ASCE 9th International Conference on Computing in Civil and Building Engineering, ICCCBE IX.
  • NETHERCOT, D.A., TIZANI, W.M.K. and SMITH, N.J., 2001. Integrated design of tubular steelwork The Structural Engineer. 79(3), 25-29
  • RUIKAR, D.E., SMITH, R.A., TIZANI, W. and NETHERCOT, D.A., 2001. Best Practice Approach in the Design of Multi Storey Steel Framed Structures In: The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC). 149-161
  • WHITEHEAD, A.S., TIZANI, W., NETHERCOT, D.A., RIVAS, S., GRAIG, A.R. and BLACKMAN, S., 2001. A study into the fabrication and erection process of SPACES bridges In: The 9th International Symposium on Tubular Structures. 65-71
  • SMITH, R.A., TIZANI, W. and NETHERCOT, D.A., 2001. An integrated tool for structural design within an interactive virtual environment In: the Sixth International Conference on The Application of Artificial Intelligence to Civil and Structural Engineering.
  • GREIG, A., RIVAS, S., BLACKMAN, S. and TIZANI, W., 2001. Welding Automation in Space-Frame Bridge Construction Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering. VOL 16(NUMB 3), 188-199
  • BARNETT, T.C., TIZANI, W. and NETHERCOT, D.A., 2001. The practice of blind bolting connections to structure hollow sections - a review Steel and Composite Structures. 1(1), 1-16
  • TIZANI, W., RUIKAR, D.E. and SMITH, R., 2000. The 3D Virtual Building Design Tool In: The International Conference on The Applications of The Use of VR in Construction (CONVR 2000). 59-65
  • TIZANI, W. and RUIKAR, D.E., 2000. Designing the virtual building In: The ASCE 8th International Conference on Computing in Civil and Building Engineering. 1403-1410
  • BARNETT, T.C., TIZANI, W. and NETHERCOT, D.A., 2000. Development of a Blind Bolting System In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Steel Structures of the 2000's. 65-70
  • BLACKMAN, S.A., RIVAS, S., GREIG, A.R., TIZANI, W., WHITEHEAD, A.S. and BERTASO, D., 2000. Automated FCAW for Tubular Structures In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Advances in Welding Technology 2000, Gas Metal Arc Welding for the 21st Century. 269-278
  • BARNETT, T.C., TIZANI, W. and NETHERCOT, D.A., 2000. Blind bolted Moment Resisting Connections to Structural Hollow Sections In: Connections in Steel Structures IV: Steel Connections in the New Millennium.
  • BROWN, D.G. and TIZANI, W., 2000. Design resistance of kidney-shaped, slotted connections The Structural Engineer. 78(6), 13-14
  • TIZANI, W. and WHITEHEAD, A., 1999. A mechanism for decision support in OOP applications of integrated structural design In: The 5th International Conference on the Applications of Artificial Intelligence to Civil and Structural Engineering. 31-36
  • TIZANI, W., 1999. The Bearing Capacity of Plates Made with Long-slotted Bolt Holes
  • TIZANI, W., 1999. Assessment of the Quality of Imported Bolts for use in Tensile Applications
  • RIVAS, S., GREIG, A., BLACKMAN, S. and TIZANI, W., 1999. Robotic welding of tubular nodes In: 16th IAARC/IFAC/IEEE International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction. 603-607
  • LI, T.Q., TIZANI, W. and NETHERCOT, D.A., 1998. Integration of Design Process for Fabrication - Multi-storey Buildings In: Application of Artificial Intelligence in Structural Engineering IV. 71-78
  • NETHERCOT, D.A. and TIZANI, W., 1998. Integrated Steel Design - Frames, Joints, Construction and Cost Issues Combined In: Proceedings of the Pacific Structural Steel Conference.
  • TIZANI, W. and NETHERCOT, D.A., 1998. Expert Integration of Connection Design In: Proceedings of the Steel Nordic Conference.
  • BROWN, D.G. and TIZANI, W., 1998. Design Capacity of Kidney Shaped Slotted Connections, SCI Publication 249
  • TIZANI, W., 1998. Analysis and Design of the as-built model. In: Artificial Intelligence in Structural Engineering Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg. 484-489
  • DAVIES, G. and TIZANI, W., 1997. Achieving the Right Solution In: the International Symposium on Design of Metal Structures, Series C, Mechanical Engineering. 47-55
  • LI, T.Q., TIZANI, W. and NETHERCOT, D.A., 1997. Integration of the design process for fabrication - Multi-storey buildings In: Application of artificial intelligence in structural engineering - IV. Proceedings of the 4th Workshop of the European Group for Structural Engineering Application of Artificial Intelligence. 71-78
  • LI, T.Q., TIZANI, W. and NETHERCOT, D.A., 1997. Integrating structural analysis, cost data and expert advice for steel frame structures In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Kerensky Conference "Structures in the New Millennium". 325-332
  • WAILES, M.K., TIZANI, W., NETHERCOT, D.A. and SMITH, N.J., 1997. The integration of tools for the concurrent design and fabrication of steel structures In: Proceedings of the CEC 97: Concurrent Engineering in Construction, Institution of Structural Engineers. 100-108
  • YUSUF, K.O., SMITH, N.J., TIZANI, W. and NETHERCOT, D.A., 1997. Enabling technologies in integrating design and construction In: CIB Proceedings: Information Technology Support for Construction Process Re-engineering, Publication 208. 455-461
  • LI, T. Q., NETHERCOT, D. A. and TIZANI, W. M. K., 1997. Integrated Design System for Semi-Rigidly Connected Steel Frames Advances in Structural Engineering. VOL 1(NUMBER 1), 47-62
  • DAVIES, G., TIZANI, W. and YUSUF, K., 1996. The challange of knowledge-based expert systems in the future design of tubular structures In: The International Conference on Tubular Structures. 216-225
  • TIZANI, W. M. K., NETHERCOT, D. A., DAVIES, G., SMITH, N. J. and MCCARTHY, T. J., 1996. Object-oriented fabrication cost model for the economic appraisal of tubular truss design Advances in Engineering Software. VOL 27(NUMBER 1/2), 11-20
  • NETHERCOT, D. and TIZANI, W., 1996. IT in construction: advances and potential In: The 15th IABSE Congress.
  • TIZANI, W., YUSUF, K., DAVIES, G. and SMITH, N., 1996. A knowledge-based system to support joint fabrication decision making at the design stage - case studies for CHS trusses In: The 7th International Symposium on Tubular Structures. 483-490
  • TIZANI, W., 1996. Re-engineering the design process using I.T. In: Knowledge-based systems in structural engineering: current developement and future trends. 43-51
  • TIZANI, W., DAVIES, G. and WHITEHEAD, A.S., 1995. A knowledge-based expert system to advise on the selection of cost effective steel frames for single storey industrial buildings In: Developments in artificial intelligence for civil and structural engineering, Proc of the 4th International Conference on The Application of Artificial Intelligence to Civil and Structural Engineering. 211-218
  • TIZANI, W., NETHERCOT, D.A. and SMITH, N.J., 1995. Decision support for the fabrication-led design of tubular trusses In: The IABSE Colloquium on Knowledge Support Systems in Civil Engineering. 117-120
  • YUSUF, K.O., TIZANI, W. and MCCARTHY, T.J., 1995. Object oriented user interface for a truss design system In: Developments in computer aided design and modelling for structural engineering Proc of the 4th International Conference on The Application of Artificial Intelligence to Civil & Structural Engineering. 229-236
  • TIZANI, W. M. K., DAVIES, G. and MCCARTHY, T. J., 1994. A construction-led design process for tubular trusses Design Studies. VOL 15(NUMBER 3), 248
  • TIZANI, W., DAVIES, G., MCCARTHY, T., NETHERCOT, D.A. and SMITH, N.J., 1994. Cost modelling for the economical appraisal of tubular truss design, in Artificial intelligence and object oriented approaches for structural engineering In: the Second International Conference on Computational Structures Technology. 59-67
  • TIZANI, W., DAVIES, G., NETHERCOT, D.A. and SMITH, N.J., 1994. Construction-led design of tubular trusses using a cost model: knowledge acquisition and representation In: the 6th Int. Symposium on Tubular Structures. 411-416
  • TIZANI, W., 1994. The role of system integration for decision support in the economic design of steel structures In: Information technology awareness in engineering, Proceedings of the EPSRC Conference on Informing Technologies to Support Engineering Decision Making. 126-132
  • TIZANI, W., DAVIES, G., MCCARTHY, T., NETHERCOT, D.A. and SMITH, N.J., 1993. Economic appraisal of tubular truss design In: the 5th International Symposium on Tubular Structures. 290-298
  • TIZANI, W., DAVIES, G., MCCARTHY, T., NETHERCOT, D.A. and SMITH, N.J., 1993. A knowledge-based approach to construction-led structural design In: Information Technologies for construction, civil engineering and transport. 301-309
  • TIZANI, W., 1992. Travel and information needs survey: data collection, Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, UK (324)
  • TIZANI, W., 1992. An assessment of the information needs of travellers, Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, UK (325)
  • TIZANI, W., 1992. Trip planning systems: review, Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, UK (373)
  • MAY, I.M., ALWANI, M.M. and TIZANI, W., 1991. The development of intelligent knowledge based system for the diagnosis of causes of cracking in buildings In: Application of Information Technology in Construction.
  • MAY, I.M. and TIZANI, W., 1989. A knowledge based system for the diagnosis of the causes of cracking in buildings In: Proceedings of the Nato Advanced Study Institute on the Optimization and Decision Support Systems in Civil Engineering.
  • DAVEY-WILSON, I.W., MAY, I.M. and TIZANI, W., 1988. Discussion on: Prolog-based expert systems in civil engineering by S Alim and J Munro Institution of Civil Engineers. Proceedings. Civil Engineering. 2, 185-187

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