Centre for Research in Applied Linguistics
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About CRAL

CRAL is a dynamic research centre dedicated to the study of language in a wide range of authentic contexts.

Recent research projects have investigated language in medical settings, English language teaching and business environments.

CRAL staff have supervised in excess of 100 PhDs, generated over 350 international research publications, and have presented keynote and plenary speeches in more than 20 countries across the globe.



CRAL research interests include:

  • Corpus-based language enquiry
  • Multi-modality and corpus linguistics
  • Health communication
  • Professional communication
  • Discourse analysis
  • Vocabulary studies
  • Bilingualism
  • Psychological aspects of language acquisition and use
  • Interfaces of language and literature
  • Second language pedagogy

Recently published

  • Carrol, G., Conklin, K., & Gyllstad, H. (2016). Found in translation: the influence of L1 on the processing of idioms in L2. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, Available online first, 1-41.
  • Guy, J., & Scott, R., Carrol, G., & Conklin, K. (2016). Editorial "Completeness" and the Challenges of Editing Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Prose Fiction. English Literature in Transition, 1880-1920, 59(4), 1-21.
  • Rodgers, M.P.H. & Webb, S. (2016). Listening to lectures. In K. Hyland & P. Shaw (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of English for Academic Purposes. London & New York: Routledge.
  • Boo, P. & Conklin, K. (2015). The effects on RSVP on reading comprehension in an L1 and L2. Journal of Second Language Teaching and Research, 4(1), 111-129.
  • Carrol, G. & Conklin, K. (2015). Cross language priming extends to formulaic units: evidence from eye-tracking suggests that this idea “has legs”. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, Available online first, 1-19.
  • Allen, D., Conklin, K., & Van Heuven, W.J.B. (2015). Making Sense of the Sense model: Translation priming with Japanese-English bilinguals. Mental Lexicon, 10(1), 32-52.
  • Bisson, M-.J., Van Heuven, W.J.B., Conklin, K., & Tunney, R.J. (2015). The Role of Verbal and Pictorial Information in Multi-Modal Incidental Acquisition of Foreign Language Vocabulary. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 68(7), 1306-1326.
  • Pellicer-Sánchez, A. (2015). Incidental vocabulary acquisition from and while reading: An eye-tracking study. Studies in Second Language Acquisition.
  • ADOLPHS, S., KNIGHT, D. and CARTER, R., (2015). Beyond Modal Spoken Corpora: A Dynamic Approach to Tracking Language in Context. In: MCENERY, T. and BAKER, P., eds., Advances in Language and Linguistics: Corpora and Discourse Studies. Palgrave.
  • MULLANY, L., HARVEY, K., SMITH, C. and ADOLPHS, S., (2015). "Am I anorexic?" Weight, eating and discourses of the body in online adolescent communication Communication and Medicine. 1-15
  • TSUCHIYA, K, COFFEY, F, TIMMONS, S, BAXENDALE, B and ADOLPHS, S, (2015).Simulated Patients vs Manikins in Acute Care Scenarios The Clinical Teacher. (In Press.)
  • Stockwell, P. and Whiteley, S. (2014) The Handbook of Stylistics. Cambridge University Press.
  • KNIGHT, D., ADOLPHS, S. and CARTER, R., (2014). CANELC - The Cambridge and Nottingham eLanguage Corpus Corpora. 9(1)


Lavender Languages & Linguistics 24 Conference

The Lavender Languages and Linguistics conference, dedicated to language and sexuality research, has run annually since 1993.

In April 2017 – for the first time in its history – scholars convened in the UK, with the conference being hosted in Nottingham. Keynote speakers were William Leap, Helen Sauntson and Paul Baker.

For more information on the conference, visit the Lavender Languages and Linguistics 24 Conference website.


International Conference on Motivational Dynamics and Second Language Acquisition, August 2014

The Internationcal Conference on Motivational Dynamics and Second Language Acquisiton is part of a large-scale research project that examines the applicability of complex dynamic systems theory to the understanding of the nature and role of motivational dynamics in second language acquisition.

A secondary aim of the conference is to create an opportunity for the international research community specialised in L2 motivation to come together at a dedicated meeting and form closer professional and personal ties in order to facilitate future developments in the field.

More information regarding registration and the conference programme, please see the Internationcal Conference on Motivational Dynamics and Second Language Acquisiton website.


ICAME35 Conference on Corpus Linguistics, Context and Culture

The ICAME 35 Conference on Corpus Linguisitcs, Context and Culture was hosted by CRAL in April 2014, with an opening talk by Ronald Carter. Keynote speakers were Beatrix Busse, Susan Hunston, Tony McEnery, Ute Römer and Wolfgang Teubert. For more information and videos please see the ICAME 35 conference website.

Open educational resources

MOOC: ‘How to read your boss’, October 2014

Dr. Mullany’s MOOC: ‘How to read your boss’ will run from 27th October to 7th November, via the University of Nottingham’s FutureLearn platform. The MOOC is based on the Linguistic Profiling Research Group.

You can also follow updates on the MOOC via the Twitter hashtag #FLreadyourboss.


MOOC: ‘How to read a mind’, March 2014

The course ‘How to read a mind ’ offered an introduction to what has come to be known as cognitive poetics. Find out more about fictional minds in the video trailer below:

‘How to read a mind’ was the first in a series of ‘how to read’ courses which will be presented by applied linguists, discourse analysts and literary critics at The University of Nottingham.



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Postgraduate open day 2017
Booking now open. Find out more about our courses, meet staff and students, explore funding and tour our fantastic facilities and campus!

Midlands3Cities PhD funding stream opens

Up to 80 open awards and 6 collaborative awards available. Deadline 15 January 2018.

English is one of the top ranked subjects for graduate earnings after five years

English is one of the top ranked subjects for graduate earnings after five years
University of Nottingham graduates earn above average salaries according to new data.

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Centre for Research in Applied Linguistics

The University of Nottingham

telephone: +44 (0) 115 951 5900
fax: +44 (0) 115 951 5924