1 Thugga

The ancient city of Thugga is often known by its modern name, Dougga. In this unit we will be using the ancient name, Thugga. We are going to start by watching a video sequence, taking occasional notes: it should form about an hour of study time. The next section follows on from the video and introduces further evidence from Thugga.

As you watch, think about how the city compares with other cities you have encountered. Look out for how the buildings and streets are arranged, for buildi
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should have:

  • an awareness of the problems related to evidence for supporting claims on ‘ordinary’ people’s attitudes;

  • an awareness of popular responses to the South African War (1899-1902);

  • an understanding of attitudes to imperialism held by Americans.


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Acknowledgements

This unit was written by Professor Martin Clayton

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Video material

Extracts are t
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4.1 What is a composition?

We are used, in Western art music, to being able to identify a piece of music and its composer. The ‘piece’ is represented by the written notation; it can be realised in somewhat different ways in different performances. One of the problems we have in applying our concepts of composition to the music of other cultures is that it is not always easy the identify a ‘piece’ of music (an item of repertoire), as distinct from a particular performance.

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4.20 Technologies and explicit knowledge continued

In the future we will see the fusion of statistical analyses of documents, agents, ontologies, metadata and informal annotation/discussion. Ontological tagging with metadata would allow authors to express their own deep understanding of the domain which may draw on knowledge that is not in the text of documents. This would allow experts to set a document in context in the light of developments since the document was written, or to encode relationships between documents that show important con
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4.13.2 Example: an ‘intelligent’ email system

Let us work through an email example of making a system ‘smarter’. We are all familiar with the standardised fields in an email system: From, To, Subject. The computer needs the To/From information, expressed in a standard format, to direct the message to its addressees and allow them to reply. It has no concept of who the sender and recipient are, or what the Subject field means. We can imagine simple knowledge-level email categories which add status information to t
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2.1 Accounting rules and reality

In a seminal article, Hines (1988) demonstrates that when we draw up accounting rules, we determine what view of reality we present. At its simplest, if we decide that internally-generated intangibles should not be measured, we also determine that a whole class of assets owned by a company is not part of the picture given by the balance sheet, and therefore the ‘reality’ that the balance sheet is supposed to reflect is shaped by our decision on the accounting rules.

Those who make t
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Unit Image

praatafrikaans: http://www.flickr.com/photos/praatafrikaans/171602015/


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Introduction

Most of the literature on the policy process focuses on how policy is made: the processes of negotiation and bargaining that take place, the struggle between rationality and politics, and the tension between ‘top-down’ and ‘bottom-up’ approaches. This unit is concerned with a rather different set of dynamics: the relationship between policy and what actually happens in the process of delivery. Formal, sequential descriptions of the policy process relegate this phase to the idea of imp
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5.5 Relationships in your organisation

In this section I have introduced you to case studies and reading that should have helped you understand how market orientation affects an organisation's performance. I have also asked you to look at your own organisation and make judgements regarding its performance. Near the beginning of this session I asked you to consider some questions from Drucker (1992). I have added a few more questions to his list and ask you now to try to answer these questions for your organisation. You probably do
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5.4 Activity 8

Activity 8

The M & S case study illustrates the importance of managing relationships. Having read it, try to answer the following questions.

  • On which value discipline has the company chosen to f
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4.4 Marks and Spencer: a case study

The following case study examines a company coming to terms with market orientation.

Case study 1 M&S goes online to reverse crisis

Marks & Spencer is the latest UK retailer to turn to the web to revive its fortunes.

In the week that the company announced a halving in its pre-tax p
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References

Connor, A. (1993) Monitoring and Evaluation Made Easy, HMSO.
Craig, S. and Jassim, H. (1995) People and Project Management for IT, McGraw-Hill.
Mae-Wan Ho (1999) ‘One bird – ten thousand treasures’, The Ecologist, October 1999, reprinted in Resurgence, No. 199, March/April 2000, p. 15.
Schlesinger,
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4.2.3 Restating the problem

If your analysis of the problem and its possible causes is thorough, it should enable you to rewrite the problem statement to include the causes. If you can clarify your objective by defining a desired end-state, you are more likely to produce a good solution.


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7.6 Who should estimate?

The person managing the project is not necessarily the best one to prepare the estimates, although they should be closely involved, both as a source of information and because they need a clear understanding of what the estimates mean and what the estimators assume about outputs, inputs and the transformation process. If there are others who have more experience or more knowledge about some of the areas of work, these people may be the best ones to make estimates for the project or parts of i
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2.1 Introduction

The planning process aims to demonstrate how the project outcomes will be achieved successfully within both the required timescale, the agreed budget and the required quality. As each project is different, there are a number of ways of taking an overview of a project. Two of these are:

  • the project life-cycle, which is a useful way of understanding the different phases of a project as it progresses, and

  • the classic six-stage project ma
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5.3 Desktop search tools

Finding your paperwork or electronic files can be a problem. You may find that even if you do have some sort of filing system, your structure soon gets quite large with files in multiple locations, which can be hard to navigate. You may find yourself making arbitrary decisions about which folder to place a document in. It may make sense now but in the future, when you look where you think it should be, it’s not there.

At times like this you may resort to the search command from the Wi
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4.8 Summary

In this section we have introduced you to the PROMPT checklist as a useful tool for assessing the quality of any piece of information. If you use it regularly you will find that you develop the ability to scan information quickly and identify strengths and weaknesses.


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4.2 P is for Presentation

By presentation, we mean, the way in which the information is communicated. You might want to ask yourself:

  • Is the language clear and easy to understand?

  • Is the information clearly laid out so that it is easy to read?

  • Are the fonts large enough and clear?

  • Are the colours effective? (e.g. white or yellow on black can be difficult to read)

  • If there are graphics or photos, do they help
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3.6 Encyclopedias

Encyclopedias can be useful reference texts to use to start your research. There are some available online, such as:

Wikipedia A freely available collaborative encyclopedia.

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