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References

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (1999) ed. by Adrian Room, London: Cassell.
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor (1983 [1817]) Biographia Literaria, vol.2, ed. by James Engell and W. Jackson Bate, Princeton and London: Princeton University Press and Kegan Paul.
Dickinson, Emily (2002) ‘If I …’, quoted in frontispiece to Staying Alive: real poems for unreal
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9 Metre

As we have seen, scansion is the act of mapping out stress patterns in order to ascertain the metre (rhythm). In the accentual-syllabic system, the dominant tradition in English, both accents (stresses) and syllables are measured and counted. In accentual metre, the stresses are counted and the syllables can vary. In syllabic metre, the syllables are counted, while the stresses can vary.

Here is pentameter, the line of fi
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5.2 Owen in London 1812–14

Owen's visits to London, where he worked on the essays, coincided with the vital closing years of the Napoleonic Wars. He arrived in the metropolis to find it seething with news of momentous events on the Continent, especially Wellington's victories in the Peninsula and Napoleon's retreat from Moscow, of the course of the war in the United States, and, closer to home, of a series of political crises made more acute by the growing unrest in the country. While the international situation remain
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3.3 Architecture

Printing and publishing, then, had their connections with the Enlightenment programme. Architecture too was related. The Adam family of architects (the father and his two sons) moved in the Edinburgh circle of the intellectuals. The young Robert Adam, for example, attended both McLaurin's mathematics lectures and Monro's anatomy lectures at the university, and his home life was enlivened by regular visits from the leading lights of the city. As one contemporary described the household, in a r
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1.8 Religion and spirituality

A good example of polysemy can be found in the different ways in which people regard the terms ‘religion’ and ‘spirituality’, and this is the subject of the first exercise below.

Exercise

Give some thought for a moment to
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Activity 7: Hofstede's way of thinking about national culture

Allow 60 minutes for this activity.

Activity 6 introduced you to Hofstede's academic writing. This activity takes this further by giving you the chance to take a closer look at what he actually said.

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3.2 Utility theory

Utility theory is based on this assumption of rationality and describes all decision outcomes (financial and otherwise) in terms of the utility (or value) placed on them by individuals. Within this framework, decisions can be understood in terms of rationally ordered levels of utility attached to different outcomes.

Bazerman (2001, pp.3–4), for example, describes a formally rational decision process for arriving at a decision with the greatest expected utility in the following terms:<
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References

Butterfield, J. (1997) ‘Strategy Development’ in Butterfield, L. (ed.) (1997) Excellence in Advertising, Oxford Institute of Practitioners in Advertising/Butterworth Heinemann pp. 65–90.
Economist, The (2001) ‘Rebirth of a salesman’, 14 April 2001, p. 82.
Fill, C. (2002) Marketing Communications: Contexts, Strategies and Applications, 3rd edition, Harlo
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4 Summary

This section has examined marketing communications’ claims to strategic credentials. Historically there have been several barriers to this – the fragmented nature of development and execution in the absence of strategic co-ordination, rivalries between different communications disciplines, and short-termism in the marketing communications industry itself which has led to communications being seen as a tactical rather than strategic resource.

The traditional hierarchy of strategy has
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Introduction

This unit introduces some of the main themes and issues in discourse analysis. To do this, it looks at extracts from the late Princess Diana interview screened on Panorama in 1995. The interview not only broke the conventions for British Royal appearances, but also reshaped the usual boundaries between public and private for the Royal family. While the focus here may be on Diana's words, the unit is not in itself concerned with the Diana phenomenon. And while some of the points discour
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5.3 Legal status and belonging

During the Second World War, Jewish refugees experienced great insecurity about their status, resulting in some cases in severe mental distress. Others ‘chafed at existing conditions. Indeed, most refugees felt they had become part of British Society’ (London, 2000, p. 262). Being naturalised as British citizens was for many ‘the milestone which established their settlement in Britain’ (London, 2000, p. 259).

Following the 2002 Nationality, Immigration and Asylum Act, prospectiv
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Acknowledgements

Acknowledgments

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Cartoon: "We all want to crack down on crime" David Austin

Figure 1: Croall, H. (1998) Crime and Society
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5.2.1 Beyond the UK

We have focused on crime in one society, in one period – the late twentieth-century UK. But crime is also becoming increasingly globalised. This is not simply to say that crime occurs throughout the world, which it certainly does. It is to highlight ways through which crime is becoming organised across borders.

One example would be cross-border criminal gangs. The American-Italian Mafia is now in global competition with Eastern European and Russian Mafias who are in turn up against Ch
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4.14 A final word

I've looked at specific techniques for taking features of our analogue world across the boundary into the digital realm. All these methods have worked along the same lines – a two-step process consisting of:

  1. breaking the target into parts; and

  2. mapping each part onto a binary number.

But I want to remind you of two points. First, we are not restricted to visual or sound information. Using the same strategy, we can ta
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4.8 Interlude – diagrams

Some types of visual information can be represented more economically than in a bitmap. Consider the rather pointless little diagram shown in Figure 21.


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4.2 Text

As I said in the human perceptual system is very strongly based on vision and hearing. When we think, we usually do so in terms of pictures and, perhaps to a lesser extent, spoken words and sounds. However, the simplest place to start thinking about how we can reduce human experience to numbers is with a very advanced human concept: written text.


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2.1 Between two worlds

Between two worlds life hovers like a star,

‘Twixt night and morn, under the horizon's verge.

How little do we know that which we are!

How less what we may be!

(Byron, Don Juan)

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13 How do you protect children online?

There is a lot of information available on how to protect younger members of the household, but quite often children know more than their parents and are able to bypass the protection that parents might have installed.

You may view the computer as a major source of information, help, shopping, news, etc. Children like to use it for entertainment, downloading music, accessing chat rooms, playing games (and sometimes even homework). So when considering children's protection the Internet h
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10 How to protect yourself against adware and spyware

Steps you can take to protect yourself against this intrusive software.

  • If a window appears suddenly, close it using the ‘X’ at the top right of the window.

  • Never use the ‘close window’ option which is sometimes offered in a pop-up window – you never know what is written in the code ‘behind’ the button or text.

  • Even clicking on the ‘No’ option to install can have hidden ramifications so the ‘X’ i
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1.9 Summary

Relational database systems underpin the majority of the managed data storage in computer systems. In this unit we have considered database development as an instance of the waterfall model of the software development life cycle. We have seen that the same activities are required to develop and maintain databases that meet user requirements.


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