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1.3.4 How to use colour to good effect

The effective use of colour is a complex and technical area. In Table 2 we have listed some general guidelines.

Table 2: Making e
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2.3 How to use text to good effect

Two aspects of the use of text are:

  • How to ensure that your text is legible.

  • How to write text that suits the medium.

We consider the first of these in this section. We do not cover how to write English that is appropriate for your particular readers here. However, it is important to ensure that your text does not contain words or expressions that may be unclear to your readers. You must select text that is meaningful
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7 The PDCA cycle

In Section 5 you were introduced to the nine-stage ISMS planning process advocated by the Standard. You have also, in Sections 5 and 6, looked in some detail at some of these stages – those comprising the ISMS documentation and asset identification tasks.

However, an ISMS must not only be planned, it must also be implemented, operated, monitored, reviewed, maintained and improved. Part 2 of the Standard provides guidance on these processes, which it suggests should be undertaken follo
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Other approaches to information security management

Many of the approaches to planning an ISMS to be found in the literature follow a three-phase, rather than a four-task, approach. For instance, Moses (1994) stipulates seven steps in three phases:

  • initiation: the identification of information assets and their security requirements;

  • analysis: the identification of possible risks to the security requirements of information assets, of the vulnerabilities to those risks, and
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2.3 Trojans

The term Trojan comes from the Greek legend about the fall of the city of Troy. The story goes that, during the seige of the city by the Greeks, a huge, hollow wooden horse was left in front of the gates. The inhabitants thought that it was a peace offering from the Greek army and dragged it into the city. Unknown to them, it was being used to conceal Greek soldiers, who were thus able to use this Trojan horse to enter the city and open the gates for the rest of their army.

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2.1 What is a virus?

A virus is a piece of computer code – a program – that has been written to gain access to files or programs on your computer. The virus may enter your computer via floppy disk, by email or by your Internet connection. It will look at the files on your computer and infect some of them if it can.


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Introduction

The World Wide Web is a vast information resource. This unit will provide you with the foundation skills to use search engines confidently to locate both information and images on the Web. You will also learn how to critically assess and reference the information you have found for study purposes.


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Unit summary

In this unit, the emphasis has been on devices communicating with each other in networks. You were introduced to some general principles about signals and networks, and the differences between wired and wireless networks. You met some of the network technologies in common use (Ethernet, WiFi and Bluetooth), before looking more closely at specific applications (smart homes, RFID systems) for networked devices. But we have barely had time to scratch the surface of what these technologies offer
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4.9 Bluetooth

The driving force for the development of the Bluetooth standard was to eliminate the need for connecting wires between local ICT devices such as keyboards, monitors, printers, PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants), cell phones and headsets. This was already possible using infrared technology, but the requirement for line-of-sight positioning between the communicating interfaces limits infrared's usefulness. Because Bluetooth uses radio waves, Bluetooth devices can communicate with each other wit
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4.7 WiFi data rates and operating range

Just as for Ethernet, developments in technology have increased the achievable data rates since the first WiFi standard was developed in 1997. At the time of writing, the latest WiFi standard to be published – IEEE 802.11g – defines a data rate of 54 Mbps.

Activity 17: exploratory

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4.5 WiFi network structure

A WiFi network can operate in one of two different modes: ad hoc mode or infrastructure mode

In an ad hoc network, stations communicate with each other directly, without the need for any intermediary or central control. This means that when one WiFi device comes within range of another, a direct communication channel can be set up between them. This is known as peer-to-peer communication. Additional devices can join the network, all communicating with each o
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4.4 An introduction to WiFi

WiFi (from ‘Wireless Fidelity’) is used to connect devices together in one of two network configurations known as ‘ad hoc’ and ‘infrastructure’. We shall explain these terms shortly. (As a starting point, though, you could look up the terms ‘ad hoc’ and ‘infrastructure’ in your dictionary.)

In wireless LANs, nodes are usually referred to as stations – probably because each communicating device acts as a radio station with transmitter and receiver. These func
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5.2 An example

In order to complete this section I shall present a simple example. This is loosely based on one described in [1], currently one of the very few books written on JavaSpaces technology.

An object that can be stored in a space has to implement an interface . The objects that form part of the example will just
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2.2 Fixed and adaptive protocols

The protocol described above for a simple naming service is an example of a fixed protocol. This is a protocol whose vocabulary is fixed: it is embedded in the client and server's code and data and does not change. An adaptive protocol is one where the protocol changes. A fixed protocol could change over a period of time because the functionality provided by a server changes. However, this change will be over months or years rather than over seconds.

There are some instances wher
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5.5 Problems with transactions

A distributed transaction is a sequence of operations applied to a number of distributed databases which form a single functional step. For example, a transaction which moves an amount of money from a customer's account to an account owned by the same customer is an example of a transaction. It consists of two operations: the operation of debiting one account and the operation of crediting another account. There are a number of problems associated with distributed transactions. This section w
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What is language?: an applied linguistic perspective
This unit serves as an introduction to the discipline of applied linguistics. It examines what is meant by ‘language’, what its main characteristics are, and how human language differs from communication between other animals. It also asks whether theoretical knowledge about language can be applied to professional practice.Author(s): Creator not set

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4.3.1 Start writing

Using the format of introduction, main body and conclusion outlined in Section 3, write up your answer to the question.


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4.2.4 Plan your time

When planning to use the time available, you should:

  • make sure that you are answering the right number of questions

  • divide your time according to the weighting of the questions

  • write down the finishing time for each question

  • try to allow for 10 minutes checking time at the end.

Stick to your plan. Evidence indicates that two half-answered questions obtain more marks than one completed
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3.6.3 Making audio tapes

Why not try recording material from your summary sheets, or cards, onto audio tape? Students who have a strong auditory memory find information sticks if they hear it rather than read it. You could play the tape back to yourself when travelling by train or car.


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1 Revision and exams

Most likely, you are reading this unit because you feel unsure about your ability to do yourself justice in exams. You may never have taken an exam and are wondering how to prepare yourself. It may have been a long time since you took an exam, and you feel a need to refresh your technique. You may be looking for reassurance and advice because you may have had a bad exam experience in the past. Whatever your reason, we hope that this unit will help.

This unit is a practical one, and we w
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