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4.2 Capitalism – naturally

Business can learn to integrate ecological thinking into the core of its thinking and become the hub of a sustainable society. This is the claim of the business learns position. As environmentalists have spent over 30 years portraying business as the arch-villain of the piece, this is a grand claim. One of the people who have stated it most clearly is Ray Anderson, head of the US carpet giant Interface (Author(s): The Open University

Acknowledgements

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References

Baggott, S. L., Cardenas, L., Garnett, E., Jackson, J., Mobbs, D. C., Murrells, T., Passant, N., Thomson, A. and Watterson, J. D. (2007) UK Greenhouse Gas Inventory, 1990 to 2005, Harwell, Oxfordshire, AEA Technology.
Brower, M. and Leon, W. (1999) The Consumer's Guide to Effective Environmental Choices, New York, Three Rivers Press.
Cabinet Office (2007) Po
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6.4 The role of governments and business

Despite all the possibilities for individual and group action to lighten carbon footprints, there will still be people, groups and organisations who will not be doing much. Many individuals limit themselves to ‘every little bit helps’, with relatively minor effects on their carbon footprint, like reusing plastic bags or recycling paper. This avoids having to consider more significant changes in car and air travel, home energy use, diet or shopping. Others will simply carry on producing an
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1.6 The human impact on the atmosphere: the coming of the industrial age

There is no doubt that CO2 is accumulating in the atmosphere. The record from Mauna Loa charts a continuing rise in CO2 concentration since measurements began in 1958, when the level was 315 ppm; the value had reached about 370 ppm by the end of the 20th century, and hit more than 378 ppm in 2004. Important as changes in atmospheric CO2 undoubtedly are (see below), we need to be aware that this is not the whole story of human-induced greenhouse forcing. In par
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4.3 The UK experience: competing trends

But one striking example does not make an argument. To try to get a fuller and possibly fairer picture of energy use by domestic refrigerators I'd like also to look at the UK experience over the past few decades.

To start with it helps to have a feel for which parts of the UK economy use the most energy. The UK Department of Trade and Industry (DTI, 1998), identifies four main economic sectors: domestic (households), industry, services and transport.

In 2003 the domestic sector (h
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4.2 The US experience: wasteful innovation?

In the 1950s and 1960s many industrialised countries experienced a prolonged period of economic expansion which, together with the rise of consumerism, created an increased demand for domestic appliances. With ready access to cheap supplies of fuel, there was little or no incentive for manufacturers or consumers to worry about energy conservation. Nowhere was this more evident than in the US, as the following extract from the influential book Factor Four of the design developments in d
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3.3 Greenfreeze: the Greens fight back

Some campaigners were not convinced by the arguments of refrigerator manufacturers and suppliers (who also happened to own some patents for HCFCs and HFCs) that the only solution, in the short to medium term, was to use the transitional compounds. They tried to demonstrate that there were practical alternatives. A group of scientists working with Greenpeace International designed a domestic refrigerator based on the use of hydrocarbons, using a mix of propane and isobutane for the refrigerant
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1.5 Organising information

How confident are you that you know when it is appropriate to cite references (refer to the work of other people) in your written work?

  • 5 – Very confident

  • 4 – Confident

  • 3 – Fairly confident

  • 2 – Not very confident

  • 1 – Not confident at all

How confident do you feel about producing bibliographies (lists of references) in an appropriate format to accompany you
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6.4 Benefits

  • 7. What are the financial benefits of the proposed change?

  • 8. What are the short-term operational benefits e.g. improvements to the key operations performance objectives?

  • 9. What are the strategic benefits, if any, of the
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3.2 Recording on the wire

A paper published by Oberlin Smith in an 1888 issue of Electrical World discussed the possibilities for recording sound using the property of magnetism. He envisaged a cotton thread impregnated with steel dust passing through a coil carrying a current controlled by a microphone. The variations with the sound in the strength of the current would cause corresponding magnetic fluctuations in the magnetic medium. Unfortunately he dismissed his idea because, as he said in his paper, he thou
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5.12 Vibrating air column: pitches of notes produced by wind instruments

In a wind instrument, the air column is the primary vibrator. To excite the air column, a musician either blows across it (e.g. flute) or blows down it via a mouthpiece (e.g. trumpet) or reed (e.g. oboe). This supplies energy, which starts the air column vibrating. The air column isn't just forced to vibrate in one single mode; as with the string, it vibrates in a combination of several modes.

To a good approximation, the air column of a flute is cylindrical with two open ends and, as a
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1.4 Three characteristic difficulties in discussions of representation

I have hinted that accounting for the nature of representation – whether it be the meaning of utterances or the content of our mental states – is not easy. There are several reasons for this, and it is as well to take note of some of them from the outset.

One is that there seem to be several different senses of ‘meaning’, ‘represents’ and related terms like ‘stands for’, ‘being about’, ‘expresses’ – differences that have been glossed over here but will need to
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2 The work of Goya

Goya developed from a decorator of churches to a court artist, accomplished portraitist, satirical graphic artist and a painter of dark, nightmare visions. His work at court, for Carlos III and Carlos IV, involved both decorative work and a series of portraits of key figures who moved in court circles. As his official, public work became more sought after, however, he developed a parallel career as a graphic artist that seemed to express more freely a private view of the injustices, vices, fo
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3 Conclusion

In this unit you have been introduced to the main components of prose fiction and have been given the opportunity to develop and practise your critical and analytical skills. These are essential skills you will need to continue your stufdies in this area.


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2.7 Style and language

What do we mean when we talk of a particular writer's style? It might help us to think of style as a way of organising and expressing narrative unique to the writer, as distinctive and personal a characteristic as the writer's handwriting or the prints on the fingers holding the pen. Just as no two sets of fingerprints are alike, so no two writers are alike. Writers write in a style that reflects their individual view of the world.

The word ‘style’ can generally be used to encompass
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2.1 The act of reading

The act of reading has been characterised by Robert DiYanni as involving three interrelated processes: experience, interpretation, and evaluation. The first thing we do when we read a novel is to experience it, that is to say, we respond to the development of the narrative and the characters presented to us. The story we read if it does its job effectively affects us on certain levels. We become involved in the events and incidents that befall the characters. The language of the narrative for
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3.4 Cognitive and non-cognitive states

At several points in the Reading, James draws a sharp contrast between emotions and what he terms ‘cognitions’. The distinction between cognitive and non-cognitive states will crop up fairly regularly from now on, so I shall pause at this point to make it clear how I am going to understand this distinction. Unfortunately, different philosophers understand the distinction in different ways; I shall introduce two possible interpretations of the distinction.

On one interpretation, the
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3.2 Knowing who to approach

The business of knowing your prospects so that you can address your request to their particular motives, aspirations and concerns is even more challenging when you are dealing with large numbers of people.

Here are some relevant questions:

  • Are you seeking contributions from new or existing donors?

  • If you are targeting existing supporters, are you aiming for the broad mass with a general appeal or focusing on a more restricted nu
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1.2 Standing out from the crowd

'In today's climate when there are 30 people going for every job, volunteering makes your CV stand out and proves your dedication. What better way is there to stand out from the crowd?'

Emily Cook, August 2008 CSV website

So, employers are impress
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