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8 Websites for further information:

Primers on drug addiction:

For general in
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5.2 Neural ageing: article 2

In the article presented here by Esteban (2004) entitled ‘Living with the enemy: a physiological role for theβ-amyloid peptide’, Trends in Neurosciences, 27, pp. 1–3, the author introduces us to a very important molecule implicated in the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease. However, the β-am
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3.1.1 Before reading this article:

Take some time to think about what ‘addiction’ means to you – how chemical and non-chemical substances can be abused and how they can lead to dependent behaviour that can affect individuals and the society in which they live. Write down your ideas.

This short exercise may be useful to establish
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

Text

Figures

Figure 3 Bronson, F.H. (1987) ‘Environmental regulation of reproduction in rodents’, in Crews, D. (ed.) Psychobiology of Reproductive Behavior, p. 209, Prenti
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit, you will be able to:

  • define and use, or recognise definitions and applications of, each of the terms printed in bold in the text;

  • identify the four main strategies shown by organisms for coping with winter;

  • appreciate and give examples of the levels and types of explanation used for understanding these strategies;

  • describe ways in which the strategies can be subjected to experimental manipulation;

    <
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1.7 The hadron era

Time: 10−5 s to 100 s

Temperature: 3 × 1012 K to 109 K

Energy: 1 GeV to 300 keV

From the time that the temperature fell to about 3 × 1012 K, at about 10−5 s after the Big Bang, stable baryons (protons and neutrons) began to form from the up and down quarks that remained after the annihilation of matter and antimatter.

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Unit Image

Calum Davidson

All other materials included in this unit are derived from content originated at the Open University.

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1.4 Law, skills and learning outcomes

This unit has a number of learning outcomes. In relation to a course of study, a learning outcome is simply something which you should be able to do (and to show that you can do) at the end of studying a particular unit. The learning outcomes are concerned with ability to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of company law, and also ability to demonstrate a range of skills, including use of IT, research and problem-solving.

In addition to being listed at the beginning of the unit, th
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8 Reading an Act of the Scottish Parliament

In this section we will explore what an Act of Parliament looks like, how Acts of Parliament are structured, and how you should read an Act of Parliament.

Copies of all Acts of the Scottish Parliament are kept in the National Archives of Scotland. Copies of all Acts of the UK Parliament have been kept since 1497. Most of these are kept in the House of Lords Record Office in the Victoria Tower at Westminster, and are available for public inspection on arrangement with the Clerk of the Re
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4.2 Formulating rules

Activity 4 should have shown you that the language used for making rules can sometimes make them difficult to understand. Given that we can only comply with a rule if we know what it means, this is a big problem! In this part of the unit we are going to look at the process of making rules in more detail – and you are going to have the opportunity to make a rule that can be understood and which is effective in achieving what it sets out to do.

It is worth restating that rules are made
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3.1 Introduction

Formal rules do not just appear from nowhere! In this part we will be exploring how such rules are the product of a process of policy making. As an example, we will be using the Irish Government's policy on banning smoking in the workplace, and the law which arose out of this policy. Part B will also provide you with an opportunity to apply some of the reasoning skills you have been developing by applying your understanding of the Irish law to some factual situations.

One of the most ob
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Why create the EU?

All the member states of the EU have declared a belief in certain fundamental values and aims. Those fundamental values include the securing of lasting peace, unity, equality, freedom, security, solidarity, democracy and the rule of law (Article 6 [1] TEU). Remember that the creation and growth of the EU, like the European Convention on Human Rights, was achieved through the efforts of individuals and states that experienced the horrors and economic aftermath of the Second World War. Since it
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6.7 Intrinsic aids

Intrinsic aids are matters within an Act itself which may help make the meaning clearer. The court may consider the long title, the short title and any preamble. Other useful internal aids may include headings before a group of sections and any schedules attached to the Act. There are also often marginal notes explaining different sections; however, these are not generally regarded as giving Parliament's intention as they will have been inserted after parliamentary debates and are only helpfu
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7.4 Elixirs of the nervous system: neurotrophins

According to Section 7.2 axons obtain an elixir from targets at their synapses.

Confirmation that there is indeed an elixir came from a series of events that reveals how much of science really works. Elmer Bucker, working with Hamburger in the mid-1940s, had removed a limb bud from a chick and replaced it with a tumour from
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Copyright © 2016 The Open University

How the AS–AD Model Incorporates Growth, Unemployment, and Inflation
OpenStax College
By the end of this section, you will be able to: Identify periods of economic growth and recession using the aggregate supply–aggregate demand model Explain how […]

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China - Economic Miracle or Economic Timebomb?
The growth of China in recent years has been described as an economic miracle with Western companies and governments rushing to build partnerships with the new power in the East. The opening up of the Chinese market and the expansion of industry, technology and production within the country has, however, had a profound effect on the people of China, its political leaders and the rest of the world. This impact can be seen in the growing inequalities within China, the loss of jobs in the west a
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2.4 Homeomorphic surfaces

As we stated in Section 1, our aim is to classify surfaces up to homeomorphism. So it is worthwhile spending a little time examining what sorts of transformations of surfaces are homeomorphisms. We shall restrict the description to surfaces in space, as these are easier to deal with, though the result at the end of this subsection applies to all surfaces.

Recall that a homeomorphism between two topological spaces (such as surfaces in space) is a bijection with the property that b
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2.2.3 Surfaces with boundary

Examples of surfaces with boundary are a cylinder and a Möbius band. Other examples are the following:

Surfaces with holes

We can obtain a surface with boundary by taking any surface without boundary and punching some holes in it by removing open discs. For example, Figure 19 shows a sphere with 3
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Pratiques innovantes en enseignement - apprentissage, l'exemple d'Innovalangues (Vidéo)

Monica Masperi

Maître de Conférences (Université Grenoble Alpes)

Pratiques innovantes en enseignement - apprentissage, l'exemple d'Innovalangues


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