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4.2 Project life cycles

Earlier I said that a project is: ‘a unique venture with a beginning and an end’ (Boddy and Buchanan, 1992, p. 8). But it must have a middle, too. We say that a project has a ‘life cycle’. This is based on an analogy with living things which are born, live for a period of time, doing things like consuming food and water, breathing, moving, etc., and then finally end (die). There is much discussion about whether there is only one ‘true’ model of a project life cycle or many, and wh
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4.2.1 Comparing the management systems

One approach to BS 8800 follows the ISO 14001 model, and the ISO 14001 system itself was closely modelled on the previous ISO 9000, with the 2000 revision of ISO 9000 following ISO 14001 principles. As a result, you may imagine that there are similarities between the standards. Many of the elements are similar, and some are nearly identical. Management systems share common elements, including developing and documenting procedures, training, record keeping, auditing, and corrective action. Fig
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Greece, euro zone agree four-month loan extension, avert crunch
Euro zone finance ministers agree in principle to extend Greece's financial rescue by four months, averting a potential crunch that could have forced Greece to drop the Euro. Deborah Lutterbeck reports. Subscribe: http://smarturl.it/reuterssubscribe More updates and breaking news: http://smarturl.it/BreakingNews Reuters tells the world's stories like no one else. As the largest international multimedia news provider, Reuters provides coverage around the globe and across topics including busine
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Recommendations for banking reform
Dr. Josef Ackermann, Chairman of Zurich Insurance Group; Vice-Chairman of the Foundation Board of the World Economic Forum puts forward his thoughts on how the banking sector can better add value to society at large.
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3.5 Order of calculations

You may have noticed that sometimes the order in which calculations are carried out seems to matter and sometimes it does not. When using a calculator, it is very important to know the order in which it will do calculations. It is not always the order in which you enter them.

Although written English is read from left to right, this is not the case for all written languages (Chinese is read top to bottom, right to left). With mathematics, the order of the written operations does not alw
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Interviews and Questionnaires
Ian Gilhespy
Producer (requires Internet Explorer) This is one of a series of learning objects that relate to research methods in the social sciences and, therefore, has a broad application even though examples are drawn from sport and leisure. This object focuses on some of the practical issues in actually writing or asking appropriate questions. References and Further Reading Gratton, C. and Jones, I. (2004) Research Methods for Sports Studies London:Routledge. May, T. (1997) Social Res

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4.6 Summary of Section 4

  1. The chemical formulae of many substances can be understood by arguing that their atoms attain noble gas structures by chemical combination.

  2. In ionic compounds, this is achieved by the transfer of electrons from one atom to another; in molecular substances, it happens through the sharing of electron pairs in covalent bonds. But in both cases, bonds between atoms consist of shared pairs of electrons. In covalent compounds the sharing is fairl
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5 Where does transcription occur in the cell?

Up to now we have described the processes of transcription without considering where each occurs within the cell.

SAQ 5

Given that transcription — the production of mRNA — requires a DNA template, where do you think this process occurs
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Introduction

Many people have the impression that underground water occupies vast caverns, such as those in the Derbyshire Peak District, flowing from one cavern to another along underground rivers. This is a common misconception: underground caverns are fairly rare, but huge quantities of water exist underground, within rocks. This is because many rocks contain pores, spaces that come in all shapes and sizes. In sediments, and consequently sedimentary rocks, there are often pores between grains which can
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5.15 Intellectual property and patents

At any stage of the innovation process, from invention to diffusion, a bright idea with market potential can be a target for unscrupulous copying. Or, as you've seen with simultaneous invention, people might be working on similar ideas in parallel and the origins of inventive ideas might be difficult to identify with precision. So it is sensible for inventors to establish their claim to a particular invention and to protect it against unauthorised exploitation by others.

There are diffe
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Global Leadership Summit 2013 Highlights
Beyond Heroes, Villians and Scapegoats: The Future of Leadership. Iceland President Olafur Grimsson, Unilever CEO Paul Polman were among the line up of big hitters at London Business School's annual leadership event.
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Learn About the Phoenix Mars Mission
The Phoenix Mars Mission has a collaborative approach to space
exploration. As the very first of NASA's Mars Scout class, Phoenix
combines legacy and innovation in a framework of a true partnership:
government, academia, and industry. In this video we learn more about
this international mission.

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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce
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6.2.3 Measurement of the angular distribution of the 3 K radiation

How are such angular distributions to be measured? One way, of course, is to take a radio telescope and swing it round the sky, taking readings in different directions. But as is clear from Figure 20(a), the atmosphere itself emits microwaves. There is therefore a grave danger, with this method, of picking up different contri
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1 Dividing the planet

A good globe can set you back quite a lot of money. Of course, I don't mean the little moulded plastic planets or the globes you can blow up as if the world were a beach ball, but the decent sized ones that sit solidly on turned wooden bases and quietly emanate authority from the corner of a room. Yet these days, it hardly seems worthwhile making such an investment. Countries appear to change their colour, their shape or their name with remarkable rapidity.

It has become a cliché to po
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Migration
This unit introduces migration in animals, with special reference to birds, and also introduces the themes of movement, selection and homeostasis. First published on Thu, 23 Oct 2014 as Migration. To find out more visit The Open University's Author(s): Creator not set

Introduction

An integral part of learning mathematics involves communication.

Writing mathematics is a specific skill which needs to be developed and practised: there is a lot of difference between putting down a few symbols for your own use and writing a mathematical solution intended for someone else to read. In attempting mathematical questions, you may previously have written down very little, just enough, perhaps, to convince yourself that you could answer the questions. This may suffice now, b
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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce mate
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • describe some key events in the evolution of life during the Palaeozoic Era, such as the first appearance of major groups of invertebrates and vertebrates, and the invasion of the land;

  • identify some common types of fossil organisms that were living in Palaeozoic seas, and comment on their likely environment and geological age;

  • make inferences from fossils about the biology and mode of life of some Pal
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"CU Chatter" about the Orange Bowl in the SMLC
Clemson University Professor Joseph Mazer explains how the Social Media Listening Center (SMLC) in Clemson's Daniel Hall is tracking conversations around the globe about the Orange Bowl as the Clemson Tigers prepare to go up against Ohio State, January 3, 2014.
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