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1.4.1 Describing uniform motion

Uniform motion along a line is the very special kind of motion that occurs when an object moves with unvarying speed in a fixed direction. During a fixed period of time, such as one second, an object in uniform motion will always cover the same distance, no matter when the period begins. This is the kind of motion associated with traffic-free motoring along straight roads, with uninterrupted train journeys along straight tracks, and with unhindered straight and level flying (provided
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1.3.5 A note on graph drawing

There will be many occasions throughout your study of physics when you will need to draw graphs. This subsection gives some important guidelines for this activity.

  1. Decide which is the independent variable and which the dependent variable. Plot the independent variable along the horizontal axis and the dependent variable along the vertical axis. This is purely a convention but is why, for instance, we usually plot the time
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1.3.4 Displacement–time graphs

Figure 10

Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • explain the underlying scientific principles of the major medical imaging techniques;

  • explain the mode of operation of the major medical imaging techniques;

  • understand the advantages and disadvantages of the major imaging techniques.


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Acknowledgements

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The following appears in Introduction to Astrobiology (Planetary Science Book 2: ISBN 0-521-54621-4) which is published in ass
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4 Unit summary

  • Many of the large icy bodies in the outer Solar System are internally differentiated. Thanks largely to tidal heating, some, especially Europa, are likely to have an ocean sandwiched between the icy exterior and the rocky core. Others may have had such an ocean in the past.

  • Wherever water rests on warm rock, water must percolate into it and become heated. This will cause hydrothermal convection to begin. Hot, chemical-rich water will emerge
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2.4 How thick is Europa's ice?

You learned in Section 1.4 that geophysical data show the ‘icy’ outer part of Europa to be about 100 km thick, but that the information is inadequate to distinguish between the extreme possibilities of solid ice all the way down to the bedrock and a floating sheet of ice supported above a liquid ocean (Author(s): The Open University

2.3.4 More surface disruption

Now let's examine some detailed images of the region of Europa's northern hemisphere that was indicated on Figure 17 (see Section 2.3.2). A medium resolution image is shown in Figure 21, and higher resolution images from within this area are shown in Author(s): The Open University

1.4 The discovery of tidal heating

The Voyager fly-bys of the Jupiter system convinced planetary scientists that former preconceptions about ‘dead’ globes were wrong – even before Voyager 1 had got as far as Saturn, the mission had enabled them to identify a new heating mechanism to explain the discrepancies. The ease with which this revolution in thought was brought about was thanks to some of the Voyager images of Io, Jupiter's innermost Galilean satellite. Io is only a fraction larger and denser than the Moon, and so
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1.3 Unravelling the natures of the large satellites

Before the dawn of the space age, relatively little could be discovered about even the large satellites. Their orbits were well known, and from the subtle orbital perturbations caused by neighbouring satellites it was possible to deduce their masses. Measurements of their sizes enabled densities to be calculated to within about 20 per cent of the currently accepted values for the Galilean satellites, and with rather less certainty for the large satellites of the other giant planets. However,
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1.1 Satellite discoveries

Figure 1
Figure 1 Galileo Galilei, 1564–1642.(© Science Photo Library)
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3.5 Communication

Compared with many other mammals, primates have a rich repertoire of communication skills, which I'll be looking at in more detail in this section.

Activity 4

Identify the instances of communication that you have observed in the T
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Introduction

In this unit we will focus on the Anthropoidea, a suborder of primates that includes monkeys, apes and humans. We will concentrate our attention here primarily on monkeys. Colour vision, a large brain and intelligence are of great importance in the lives of anthropoids, enabling them to eat foods inaccessible to many other animals and to exploit social situations. In this unit, we will be looking at characteristics of primates that differ, or are enhanced, in anthropoids and discussing these
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should understand:

  • some of the types of disease that might be treatable by gene therapy

  • the basic principals of genetic manipulation

  • the differences between somatic and germline gene therapy and some of the problems involved in these potential treatments

  • how genetics may be used in the design of drugs.


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Introduction

This unit is an adapted extract from the Open University course Human genetics and health issues (SK195)

Following on from the advances made in diagnosing disorders using genetic testing, this unit looks at the possibilities for genetic therapies. Two approaches to gene therapy are discussed: correcting genes involved in causing illness; and using genes to treat disorders. Before
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Acknowledgements

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Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:


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2.4 ‘Go Use’ science promotion events

Science shops, created in the Netherlands in the 1960s and now spread throughout Europe, first emerged in the UK in 1988 (at Queen's University, Belfast). They act as a demand-driven link between a university or independent research facility and the community (usually via citizen groups, such as pressure groups, social groups, consumers and residents associations), putting one in touch with the other upon request. They carry out scientific research on practical, scientific problems at the loc
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2.2 ‘Go See’ science promotion events

Every year, the BA (British Association for the Advancement of Science) runs a week-long Festival of Science in a different town or city, claiming it to be the largest public celebration of science in the country. The events are diverse in topic and character. The 2004 Festival in Exeter, for example, included a Presidential lecture on the responsibility of scientists, an exhibition on climate change, and an excursion to a nearby car park to test geometry by chalking lines on the ground. Fest
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1.2 Defining science promotion

A basic definition of science promotion would be useful here: in the context of this unit it means putting forward the benefits of science by motivating and engaging non-scientists. You may be aware of the sociological argument that science is open to social influences and constraints, and it is worth bearing this in mind when thinking about whether the benefits of science are necessarily the same for everyone. Likewise, you will need to remember that the public is not a homogeneous mass with
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1.1 The political climate

You may have read a lot about recent political moves to involve the public in science policy making. Some commentators, such as Alan Irwin and Brian Wynne, are in favour of it, while others, such as Lewis Wolpert or Richard Dawkins, are circumspect or even hostile to involving the public in science. However, it is generally agreed that increasing public engagement with science is important and worthwhile, with tangible societal value (in other words it has value for experts, policy makers and
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