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Introduction

This unit looks at the role of innovation in the development of industries and considers how production costs change as sales increase and as new technology is introduced into the production process. It looks at the relation between consumer demand for a good and that good's price, and at how the relation between output and production costs in different markets can dramatically affect industry structure. In describing these issues, the unit introduces the range of activities that constitutes
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Acknowledgements

The material below is contained in chapter 1 of Economics and Economic Change Microeconomics (2006) (eds) Graham Dawson, Maureen Mackintosh and Paul Anand which is published by Pearson Education Limited in association with The Open University. Copyright © The Open University

The material acknowledged below is Proprietary and not subject to Creative Commons Licence and used under licence (see terms and conditions).

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9.2 Absolute thresholds
Hearing is a familiar and important human sense that is a topic naturally of interest to those who are curious about human biology. This unit will enable you to relate what you read to your own sensory experiences – and indeed many of the questions asked have exactly that function. This unit will be best understood by those with some biological understanding.
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7.4 Summary of Section 7
Hearing is a familiar and important human sense that is a topic naturally of interest to those who are curious about human biology. This unit will enable you to relate what you read to your own sensory experiences – and indeed many of the questions asked have exactly that function. This unit will be best understood by those with some biological understanding.
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6.2 Number of neurons hypothesis
Hearing is a familiar and important human sense that is a topic naturally of interest to those who are curious about human biology. This unit will enable you to relate what you read to your own sensory experiences – and indeed many of the questions asked have exactly that function. This unit will be best understood by those with some biological understanding.
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6.1 Firing-rate hypothesis
Hearing is a familiar and important human sense that is a topic naturally of interest to those who are curious about human biology. This unit will enable you to relate what you read to your own sensory experiences – and indeed many of the questions asked have exactly that function. This unit will be best understood by those with some biological understanding.
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3.1 Introduction
Hearing is a familiar and important human sense that is a topic naturally of interest to those who are curious about human biology. This unit will enable you to relate what you read to your own sensory experiences – and indeed many of the questions asked have exactly that function. This unit will be best understood by those with some biological understanding.
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1.5 Making the most of your reflections
How do we learn? Understanding ‘how’ is the key to learning more effectively. This unit looks at the three main categories of theories: the acquisitive, constructivist and experiential models of learning. There is no right way to learn but developing an active approach will ensure that you are open to new ideas.
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1.7 More Sassoon voices: exercise
In this unit we will consider how language can be used in different ways for different purposes. To do this we will use the theme of memorial and commemoration. In the first section we briefly discuss the life of the poet Siegfried Sassoon before examining both his poetry and prose. Through this we will see how he conveys meaning in different ways for different audiences using different forms. Following this we discuss more generally how different meanings can be conveyed using prose and poetic
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9.6 Debate 3: politics in the novel
Sunset Song was written in the early 1930s and is still one of the best-known and most-debated Scottish novels. In this unit, we discuss whether Sunset Song succeeds as critique of capitalism and whether it has value as a work of literature separate from its propagandistic ambitions.
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6.3 Rapid-response genes and rhythmic neuronal activity
Hibernation is an ingenious adaptation that some animals employ to survive difficult conditions in winter. This unit examines the differences between hibernation and torpor, and discusses the characteristic signs of hibernation behaviour. It explores the triggers that bring on hibernation, and whether internal signals or external season cues are predominant. It also examines the physiological adaptations that occur in hibernating animals. This unit builds on and develops ideas introduced in the
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5.3 Inspiratory drive
Hibernation is an ingenious adaptation that some animals employ to survive difficult conditions in winter. This unit examines the differences between hibernation and torpor, and discusses the characteristic signs of hibernation behaviour. It explores the triggers that bring on hibernation, and whether internal signals or external season cues are predominant. It also examines the physiological adaptations that occur in hibernating animals. This unit builds on and develops ideas introduced in the
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3.5 Length of torpor bouts in hibernation
Hibernation is an ingenious adaptation that some animals employ to survive difficult conditions in winter. This unit examines the differences between hibernation and torpor, and discusses the characteristic signs of hibernation behaviour. It explores the triggers that bring on hibernation, and whether internal signals or external season cues are predominant. It also examines the physiological adaptations that occur in hibernating animals. This unit builds on and develops ideas introduced in the
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Introduction
Hibernation is an ingenious adaptation that some animals employ to survive difficult conditions in winter. This unit examines the differences between hibernation and torpor, and discusses the characteristic signs of hibernation behaviour. It explores the triggers that bring on hibernation, and whether internal signals or external season cues are predominant. It also examines the physiological adaptations that occur in hibernating animals. This unit builds on and develops ideas introduced in the
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3 Chromosome structure and DNA replication
Genomes are composed of DNA, and a knowledge of the structure of DNA is essential to understand how it can function as hereditary material. DNA is remarkable, breathtakingly simple in its structure yet capable of directing all the living processes in a cell, the production of new cells and the development of a fertilized egg to an individual adult. DNA has three key properties: it is relatively stable; its structure suggests an obvious way in which the molecule can be duplicated, or replicated;
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1 1.2 How DNA is replicated
Genomes are composed of DNA, and a knowledge of the structure of DNA is essential to understand how it can function as hereditary material. DNA is remarkable, breathtakingly simple in its structure yet capable of directing all the living processes in a cell, the production of new cells and the development of a fertilized egg to an individual adult. DNA has three key properties: it is relatively stable; its structure suggests an obvious way in which the molecule can be duplicated, or replicated;
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1.1.1 The chemical structure of DNA
Genomes are composed of DNA, and a knowledge of the structure of DNA is essential to understand how it can function as hereditary material. DNA is remarkable, breathtakingly simple in its structure yet capable of directing all the living processes in a cell, the production of new cells and the development of a fertilized egg to an individual adult. DNA has three key properties: it is relatively stable; its structure suggests an obvious way in which the molecule can be duplicated, or replicated;
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Learning outcomes
Genomes are composed of DNA, and a knowledge of the structure of DNA is essential to understand how it can function as hereditary material. DNA is remarkable, breathtakingly simple in its structure yet capable of directing all the living processes in a cell, the production of new cells and the development of a fertilized egg to an individual adult. DNA has three key properties: it is relatively stable; its structure suggests an obvious way in which the molecule can be duplicated, or replicated;
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References

Greater London Authority (2002) ‘Trafalgar Square and Parliament Square Gardens  (Amendment No: 1) Byelaws 2002’, [online] The Stationery Office, London, (Accessed 24 July 2007).
Muylle, K.J. (2003) ‘Improving the effectiveness of parliamentary legislative
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Acknowledgements

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Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

The content acknowledged below is P
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