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1.9 Models of health care delivery: alternative or holistic models

Many CAM modalities have grown from a wide range of concepts of the body and health and healing that differ from the models discussed so far. As Fulder notes:

The body, in Chinese medicine, is energetic. In yoga and healing, the body is spiritual. In modern (conventional) medicine, the body is physicochemical. In homeopathy, it is phenomenological. In naturopathy it is vital, etc. All of these conceptions do not necess
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1.7 Models of health care delivery: the biopsychosocial model

Activity 4: The biopsychosocial model

0 hours 30 minutes

Read the following description of the biopsychosocial model and make notes on the positive and negative implications for lay us
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1.5 Models of health care delivery

In the quest to understand health and illness behaviour, social and medical researchers have developed various models to explain the different forms of health care delivery. These models emerged because, in the mid-20th century, social researchers began to question not only the position of professions in western countries but also the relationship between professionals and users. Early explorations of the patient's role in health care suggested that it was fairly prescribed (Parsons, 1951), a
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Introduction

The stresses of modern living take their toll in terms of our health. This unit is formed from three extracts. The first extract is called ‘Understanding why people use complementary and alternative medicine'. This part discusses: the meaning of health, its origins in terms of components and beliefs. Also models of health care delivery are discussed together with concepts and beliefs about complementary and alternative medicine. Extract two 'Critical issues in the therapeutic relationship'
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1.4.8 Summary

In this section we have introduced you to the PROMPT checklist as a useful tool for assessing the quality of any piece of information. If you use it regularly you will find that you develop the ability to scan information quickly and identify strengths and weaknesses. As a closing exercise you might like to pick one of these websites:

Diagnose-Me.com

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1.4.5 M is for Method

Method is about the way in which a piece of information is produced. This is quite a complex area as different types of information are produced in different ways. These are a few suggestions to look out for:

Opinions – A lot of information is based on the opinion of individuals. They may or not be experts in their field (see P for Provenance) but the key message is to be clear that it is just an opinion and must be valued as such.

Research – You don’t have t
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1.3.11 Choosing the right tool for the job

Before searching it is always a good idea to check what the source you have chosen covers to make sure it will unearth information that matches your search need (you will notice that all the resources we’ve covered in this guide have short descriptions to enable you to decide which to use). Some of the decision makers, depending on the context of your search might be:

  • Does it have full text?

  • Does it cover the right subject?


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1.3.4 Databases

At a basic level, a database is a collection of information which can be searched. It is a way of storing, indexing, organising and retrieving information. You may have created one yourself to keep track of your references – or your friends' names and addresses. They are useful for finding articles on a topic, and can be used to search for many different types of information.

You may find some of the following databases useful for your topic. They contain different types of informati
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1.3.1 Introduction

You can find a lot of information about health and lifestyle on the internet.

To find this information you might choose to use:

  • search engines and subject gateways;

  • books and electronic books;

  • databases;

  • journals;

  • encyclopedias

  • statistics

  • internet resources.


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1.1.1 Assessing your current level of knowledge

If you explore all the resources and activities in this unit, you might need to allow between two and nine hours to complete it.

Before you read this guide, why not use the self-assessment questions on the next screen to rate your current level of knowledge?

Print or save these questions and for each question, mark the most appropriate number on the scale. When you have finished, you can review your answers. A score of three of less might indicate a gap in your knowledge
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1.6 Valuing diversity

Social workers need to recognise diversity: valuing and respecting service users – irrespective of, for example, their ethnicity, gender or age – is central to good practice. It is also about working in a way that counters the unfair or unequal treatment of individuals or groups on the basis of their race, gender, class, age, culture, religion, sexuality or ability. There is a growing body of law that seeks to prohibit and punish a range of discriminatory behaviours in various kinds of so
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1.2 Partnership

This can be defined as including service users, and their advocates and carers, and other interested parties, as far as possible in the decision-making processes that affect their lives. In other words, work with service users should be based on their meaningful participation in decision making. Good practice demands that work takes place on the basis of partnership. Sometimes there can be a legal requirement to work in partnership with service users (for example, working with the parents of
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References

Berry Brazelton, T. and Cramer, B. G. (1991) The Earliest Relationship, London: Karnac Books
Meggitt, C. and Sunderland, G. (2000) Child Development: An illustrated guide, London: Heinemann Child Care, pp. 7, 10, 11
Oates, J. (ed.) (1994) The Foundations of Child Development, Oxford: Blackwell in association with The Open University

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3.2 Types of placement in foster care

The Nottinghamshire Pathfinder Trust (2005) describe the following different types of placement in foster care

  • Short-term placements may be chosen for example, when there are relationship difficulties between parents and children or when the principal carers or parents have serious health problems. Placements can vary from an overnight stay to one of several weeks.

  • Support foster care offers short breaks to parents and ch
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Introduction

This unit is from our archive and it is an adapted extract from Working with children and families (K204) which is no longer in presentation. If you wish to study formally at The Open University, you may wish to explore the courses we offer in this subject area.

You are probably aware that most children live with a parent o
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3.3 The mental health of young black men

According to the Health Development Agency, ‘Young black men are over-represented in the mental health statistics’ (Health Development Agency, 2001, p. 36), particularly in terms of diagnosis for schizophrenia, which is generally three times higher for the African-Caribbean population than for the UK white population (Nazroo, 1997). Young black men are over-represented in hospital admissions for mental health problems, contact with psychiatry via the police, courts and prison, and at the
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2.4 Applying a critical approach

A critical approach to young people's health sounds fine in the abstract, but what might it mean in practice? How can such a framework help us to make sense of young people's actual experience of physical and mental distress?

To explore these questions, we will look at the apparent increase in the incidence of eating disorders, especially among young women. One of the advantages of this example is that it combines concerns about physical and mental health. This discussion will draw on a
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2.1 Introduction

In the unit overview we explored some of the images and discourses about young people's health currently in circulation. But what assumptions are being made in these stories about what it means for a young person to be healthy, whether physically or mentally? What kind of model of wellbeing is being used in these discourses, and are there alternative approaches?


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Introduction

This unit examines the subject of brain-based learning, with a particular focus on the development of the young child's brain and is of particular relevance to those who work with young children. We begin by looking at the structure and functions of the brain, and the impact that sensory deprivation can have on these. We consider the implications of current understandings of brain development for teaching and learning, particularly in an early years setting, and finish by exploring the value
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4.7 Summary

  • Piaget proposed that all children pass through an ordered sequence of stages of cognitive development. This development arises through the processes of intrinsic motivation, assimilation and accommodation and equilibriation.

  • Children's actions on the environment are the basic building blocks of development.

  • Piaget argued that children reason differently to adults, as their mental representations of the world are initially centre
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